Recently, remarkable progress has been made over large language models (LLMs), demonstrating their unprecedented capability in varieties of natural language tasks. However, completely training a large general-purpose model from the scratch is challenging for time series analysis, due to the large volumes and varieties of time series data, as well as the non-stationarity that leads to concept drift impeding continuous model adaptation and re-training. Recent advances have shown that pre-trained LLMs can be exploited to capture complex dependencies in time series data and facilitate various applications. In this survey, we provide a systematic overview of existing methods that leverage LLMs for time series analysis. Specifically, we first state the challenges and motivations of applying language models in the context of time series as well as brief preliminaries of LLMs. Next, we summarize the general pipeline for LLM-based time series analysis, categorize existing methods into different groups (i.e., direct query, tokenization, prompt design, fine-tune, and model integration), and highlight the key ideas within each group. We also discuss the applications of LLMs for both general and spatial-temporal time series data, tailored to specific domains. Finally, we thoroughly discuss future research opportunities to empower time series analysis with LLMs.
With the rapid proliferation of textual data, predicting long texts has emerged as a significant challenge in the domain of natural language processing. Traditional text prediction methods encounter substantial difficulties when grappling with long texts, primarily due to the presence of redundant and irrelevant information, which impedes the model's capacity to capture pivotal insights from the text. To address this issue, we introduce a novel approach to long-text classification and prediction. Initially, we employ embedding techniques to condense the long texts, aiming to diminish the redundancy therein. Subsequently,the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) embedding method is utilized for text classification training. Experimental outcomes indicate that our method realizes considerable performance enhancements in classifying long texts of Preferential Trade Agreements. Furthermore, the condensation of text through embedding methods not only augments prediction accuracy but also substantially reduces computational complexity. Overall, this paper presents a strategy for long-text prediction, offering a valuable reference for researchers and engineers in the natural language processing sphere.
Generating dynamic three-dimensional (3D) object from a single-view video is challenging due to the lack of 4D labeled data. Existing methods extend text-to-3D pipelines by transferring off-the-shelf image generation models such as score distillation sampling, but they are slow and expensive to scale (e.g., 150 minutes per object) due to the need for back-propagating the information-limited supervision signals through a large pretrained model. To address this limitation, we propose an efficient video-to-4D object generation framework called Efficient4D. It generates high-quality spacetime-consistent images under different camera views, and then uses them as labeled data to directly train a novel 4D Gaussian splatting model with explicit point cloud geometry, enabling real-time rendering under continuous camera trajectories. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real videos show that Efficient4D offers a remarkable 10-fold increase in speed when compared to prior art alternatives while preserving the same level of innovative view synthesis quality. For example, Efficient4D takes only 14 minutes to model a dynamic object.
High-resolution 3D object generation remains a challenging task primarily due to the limited availability of comprehensive annotated training data. Recent advancements have aimed to overcome this constraint by harnessing image generative models, pretrained on extensive curated web datasets, using knowledge transfer techniques like Score Distillation Sampling (SDS). Efficiently addressing the requirements of high-resolution rendering often necessitates the adoption of latent representation-based models, such as the Latent Diffusion Model (LDM). In this framework, a significant challenge arises: To compute gradients for individual image pixels, it is necessary to backpropagate gradients from the designated latent space through the frozen components of the image model, such as the VAE encoder used within LDM. However, this gradient propagation pathway has never been optimized, remaining uncontrolled during training. We find that the unregulated gradients adversely affect the 3D model's capacity in acquiring texture-related information from the image generative model, leading to poor quality appearance synthesis. To address this overarching challenge, we propose an innovative operation termed Pixel-wise Gradient Clipping (PGC) designed for seamless integration into existing 3D generative models, thereby enhancing their synthesis quality. Specifically, we control the magnitude of stochastic gradients by clipping the pixel-wise gradients efficiently, while preserving crucial texture-related gradient directions. Despite this simplicity and minimal extra cost, extensive experiments demonstrate the efficacy of our PGC in enhancing the performance of existing 3D generative models for high-resolution object rendering.
Reconstructing dynamic 3D scenes from 2D images and generating diverse views over time is challenging due to scene complexity and temporal dynamics. Despite advancements in neural implicit models, limitations persist: (i) Inadequate Scene Structure: Existing methods struggle to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of dynamic scenes from directly learning the complex 6D plenoptic function. (ii) Scaling Deformation Modeling: Explicitly modeling scene element deformation becomes impractical for complex dynamics. To address these issues, we consider the spacetime as an entirety and propose to approximate the underlying spatio-temporal 4D volume of a dynamic scene by optimizing a collection of 4D primitives, with explicit geometry and appearance modeling. Learning to optimize the 4D primitives enables us to synthesize novel views at any desired time with our tailored rendering routine. Our model is conceptually simple, consisting of a 4D Gaussian parameterized by anisotropic ellipses that can rotate arbitrarily in space and time, as well as view-dependent and time-evolved appearance represented by the coefficient of 4D spherindrical harmonics. This approach offers simplicity, flexibility for variable-length video and end-to-end training, and efficient real-time rendering, making it suitable for capturing complex dynamic scene motions. Experiments across various benchmarks, including monocular and multi-view scenarios, demonstrate our 4DGS model's superior visual quality and efficiency.