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Abstract:Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is an emerging technology to enhance spatial multiplexing in wireless networks. This letter considers the discrete passive beamforming design for IRS in order to maximize the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) among multiple users in an IRS-assisted downlink network. The main design difficulty lies in the discrete phase-shift constraint. Differing from most existing works, this letter advocates a convex-hull relaxation of the discrete constraints which leads to a continuous reformulated problem equivalent to the original discrete problem. This letter further proposes an efficient alternating projection/proximal gradient descent and ascent algorithm for solving the reformulated problem. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods significantly.

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Abstract:Both dual-functional radar-communication (DFRC) and massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) have been recognized as enabling technologies for 6G wireless networks. This paper considers the advanced waveform design for hardware-efficient massive MIMO DFRC systems. Specifically, the transmit waveform is imposed with the quantized constant-envelope (QCE) constraint, which facilitates the employment of low-resolution digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and power-efficient amplifiers. The waveform design problem is formulated as the minimization of the mean square error (MSE) between the designed and desired beampatterns subject to the constructive interference (CI)-based communication quality of service (QoS) constraints and the QCE constraint. To solve the formulated problem, we first utilize the penalty technique to transform the discrete problem into an equivalent continuous penalty model. Then, we propose an inexact augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) algorithm for solving the penalty model. In particular, the ALM subproblem at each iteration is solved by a custom-built block successive upper-bound minimization (BSUM) algorithm, which admits closed-form updates, making the proposed inexact ALM algorithm computationally efficient. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach over existing state-of-the-art ones. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to examine the impact of various system parameters on the trade-off between communication and radar performances.

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Authors:Ya-Feng Liu, Tsung-Hui Chang, Mingyi Hong, Zheyu Wu, Anthony Man-Cho So, Eduard A. Jorswieck, Wei Yu

Abstract:Mathematical optimization is now widely regarded as an indispensable modeling and solution tool for the design of wireless communications systems. While optimization has played a significant role in the revolutionary progress in wireless communication and networking technologies from 1G to 5G and onto the future 6G, the innovations in wireless technologies have also substantially transformed the nature of the underlying mathematical optimization problems upon which the system designs are based and have sparked significant innovations in the development of methodologies to understand, to analyze, and to solve those problems. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of recent advances in mathematical optimization theory and algorithms for wireless communication system design. We begin by illustrating common features of mathematical optimization problems arising in wireless communication system design. We discuss various scenarios and use cases and their associated mathematical structures from an optimization perspective. We then provide an overview of recent advances in mathematical optimization theory and algorithms, from nonconvex optimization, global optimization, and integer programming, to distributed optimization and learning-based optimization. The key to successful solution of mathematical optimization problems is in carefully choosing and/or developing suitable optimization algorithms (or neural network architectures) that can exploit the underlying problem structure. We conclude the paper by identifying several open research challenges and outlining future research directions.

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Abstract:A promising approach to deal with the high hardware cost and energy consumption of massive MIMO transmitters is to use low-resolution digital-to-analog converters (DACs) at each antenna element. This leads to a transmission scheme where the transmitted signals are restricted to a finite set of voltage levels. This paper is concerned with the analysis and optimization of a low-cost quantized precoding strategy, referred to as linear-quantized precoding, for a downlink massive MIMO system under Rayleigh fading. In linear-quantized precoding, the signals are first processed by a linear precoding matrix and subsequently quantized component-wise by the DAC. In this paper, we analyze both the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and the symbol error probability (SEP) performances of such linear-quantized precoding schemes in an asymptotic framework where the number of transmit antennas and the number of users grow large with a fixed ratio. Our results provide a rigorous justification for the heuristic arguments based on the Bussgang decomposition that are commonly used in prior works. Based on the asymptotic analysis, we further derive the optimal precoder within a class of linear-quantized precoders that includes several popular precoders as special cases. Our numerical results demonstrate the excellent accuracy of the asymptotic analysis for finite systems and the optimality of the derived precoder.

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Abstract:This paper focuses on the analysis and optimization of a class of linear one-bit precoding schemes for a downlink massive MIMO system under Rayleigh fading channels. The considered class of linear one-bit precoding is fairly general, including the well-known matched filter (MF) and zero-forcing (ZF) precoding schemes as special cases. Our analysis is based on an asymptotic framework where the numbers of transmit antennas and users in the system grow to infinity with a fixed ratio. We show that, under the asymptotic assumption, the symbol error probability (SEP) of the considered linear one-bit precoding schemes converges to that of a scalar ``signal plus independent Gaussian noise'' model. This result enables us to provide accurate predictions for the SEP of linear one-bit precoding. Additionally, we also derive the optimal linear one-bit precoding scheme within the considered class based on our analytical results. Simulation results demonstrate the excellent accuracy of the SEP prediction and the optimality of the derived precoder.

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Abstract:Quantized constant envelope (QCE) precoding, a new transmission scheme that only discrete QCE transmit signals are allowed at each antenna, has gained growing research interests due to its ability of reducing the hardware cost and the energy consumption of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. However, the discrete nature of QCE transmit signals greatly complicates the precoding design. In this paper, we consider the QCE precoding problem for a massive MIMO system with phase shift keying (PSK) modulation and develop an efficient approach for solving the constructive interference (CI) based problem formulation. Our approach is based on a custom-designed (continuous) penalty model that is equivalent to the original discrete problem. Specifically, the penalty model relaxes the discrete QCE constraint and penalizes it in the objective with a negative $\ell_2$-norm term, which leads to a non-smooth non-convex optimization problem. To tackle it, we resort to our recently proposed alternating optimization (AO) algorithm. We show that the AO algorithm admits closed-form updates at each iteration when applied to our problem and thus can be efficiently implemented. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach over the existing algorithms.

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Abstract:Quantized constant envelope (QCE) transmission is a popular and effective technique to reduce the hardware cost and improve the power efficiency of 5G and beyond systems equipped with large antenna arrays. It has been widely observed that the number of quantization levels has a substantial impact on the system performance. This paper aims to quantify the impact of the number of quantization levels on the system performance. Specifically, we consider a downlink single-user multiple-input-single-output (MISO) system with M-phase shift keying (PSK) constellation under the Rayleigh fading channel. We first derive a novel bound on the system symbol error probability (SEP). Based on the derived SEP bound, we characterize the achievable diversity order of the quantized matched filter (MF) precoding strategy. Our results show that full diversity order can be achieved when the number of quantization levels L is greater than the PSK constellation order M, i.e., L>M, only half diversity order is achievable when L=M, and the achievable diversity order is 0 when L<M. Simulation results verify our theoretical analysis.

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Abstract:In this paper, we consider the one-bit precoding problem for the multiuser downlink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with phase shift keying (PSK) modulation and focus on the celebrated constructive interference (CI)-based problem formulation. We first establish the NP-hardness of the problem (even in the single-user case), which reveals the intrinsic difficulty of globally solving the problem. Then, we propose a novel negative $\ell_1$ penalty model for the considered problem, which penalizes the one-bit constraint into the objective with a negative $\ell_1$-norm term, and show the equivalence between (global and local) solutions of the original problem and the penalty problem when the penalty parameter is sufficiently large. We further transform the penalty model into an equivalent min-max problem and propose an efficient alternating optimization (AO) algorithm for solving it. The AO algorithm enjoys low per-iteration complexity and is guaranteed to converge to the stationary point of the min-max problem. To further reduce the computational cost, we also propose a low-complexity implementation of the AO algorithm, where the values of the variables will be fixed in later iterations once they satisfy the one-bit constraint. Numerical results show that, compared against the state-of-the-art CI-based algorithms, both of the proposed algorithms generally achieve better bit-error-rate (BER) performance with lower computational cost, especially when the problem is difficult (e.g., high-order modulations, large number of antennas, or high user-antenna ratio).

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Abstract:This paper considers the one-bit precoding problem for the multiuser downlink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with phase shift keying (PSK) modulation and focuses on the celebrated constructive interference (CI)-based problem formulation. The existence of the discrete one-bit constraint makes the problem generally hard to solve. In this paper, we propose an efficient negative $\ell_1$ penalty approach for finding a high-quality solution of the considered problem. Specifically, we first propose a novel negative $\ell_1$ penalty model, which penalizes the one-bit constraint into the objective with a negative $\ell_1$-norm term, and show the equivalence between (global and local) solutions of the original problem and the penalty problem when the penalty parameter is sufficiently large. We further transform the penalty model into an equivalent min-max problem and propose an efficient alternating optimization (AO) algorithm for solving it. The AO algorithm enjoys low per-iteration complexity and is guaranteed to converge to the stationary point of the min-max problem. Numerical results show that, compared against the state-of-the-art CI-based algorithms, the proposed algorithm generally achieves better bit-error-rate (BER) performance with lower computational cost.

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