Representation learning frameworks in unlabeled time series have been proposed for medical signal processing. Despite the numerous excellent progresses have been made in previous works, we observe the representation extracted for the time series still does not generalize well. In this paper, we present a Time series (medical signal) Representation Learning framework via Spectrogram (TRLS) to get more informative representations. We transform the input time-domain medical signals into spectrograms and design a time-frequency encoder named Time Frequency RNN (TFRNN) to capture more robust multi-scale representations from the augmented spectrograms. Our TRLS takes spectrogram as input with two types of different data augmentations and maximizes the similarity between positive ones, which effectively circumvents the problem of designing negative samples. Our evaluation of four real-world medical signal datasets focusing on medical signal classification shows that TRLS is superior to the existing frameworks.
* This paper is accept by ICASSP 2024. This is a more detailed version
With the help of conditioning mechanisms, the state-of-the-art diffusion models have achieved tremendous success in guided image generation, particularly in text-to-image synthesis. To gain a better understanding of the training process and potential risks of text-to-image synthesis, we perform a systematic investigation of backdoor attack on text-to-image diffusion models and propose BadT2I, a general multimodal backdoor attack framework that tampers with image synthesis in diverse semantic levels. Specifically, we perform backdoor attacks on three levels of the vision semantics: Pixel-Backdoor, Object-Backdoor and Style-Backdoor. By utilizing a regularization loss, our methods efficiently inject backdoors into a large-scale text-to-image diffusion model while preserving its utility with benign inputs. We conduct empirical experiments on Stable Diffusion, the widely-used text-to-image diffusion model, demonstrating that the large-scale diffusion model can be easily backdoored within a few fine-tuning steps. We conduct additional experiments to explore the impact of different types of textual triggers. Besides, we discuss the backdoor persistence during further training, the findings of which provide insights for the development of backdoor defense methods.
At present, backdoor attacks attract attention as they do great harm to deep learning models. The adversary poisons the training data making the model being injected with a backdoor after being trained unconsciously by victims using the poisoned dataset. In the field of text, however, existing works do not provide sufficient defense against backdoor attacks. In this paper, we propose a Noise-augmented Contrastive Learning (NCL) framework to defend against textual backdoor attacks when training models with untrustworthy data. With the aim of mitigating the mapping between triggers and the target label, we add appropriate noise perturbing possible backdoor triggers, augment the training dataset, and then pull homology samples in the feature space utilizing contrastive learning objective. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in defending three types of textual backdoor attacks, outperforming the prior works.
3D photography renders a static image into a video with appealing 3D visual effects. Existing approaches typically first conduct monocular depth estimation, then render the input frame to subsequent frames with various viewpoints, and finally use an inpainting model to fill those missing/occluded regions. The inpainting model plays a crucial role in rendering quality, but it is normally trained on out-of-domain data. To reduce the training and inference gap, we propose a novel self-supervised diffusion model as the inpainting module. Given a single input image, we automatically construct a training pair of the masked occluded image and the ground-truth image with random cycle-rendering. The constructed training samples are closely aligned to the testing instances, without the need of data annotation. To make full use of the masked images, we design a Masked Enhanced Block (MEB), which can be easily plugged into the UNet and enhance the semantic conditions. Towards real-world animation, we present a novel task: out-animation, which extends the space and time of input objects. Extensive experiments on real datasets show that our method achieves competitive results with existing SOTA methods.
Existing zero-shot cross-lingual transfer methods rely on parallel corpora or bilingual dictionaries, which are expensive and impractical for low-resource languages. To disengage from these dependencies, researchers have explored training multilingual models on English-only resources and transferring them to low-resource languages. However, its effect is limited by the gap between embedding clusters of different languages. To address this issue, we propose Embedding-Push, Attention-Pull, and Robust targets to transfer English embeddings to virtual multilingual embeddings without semantic loss, thereby improving cross-lingual transferability. Experimental results on mBERT and XLM-R demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms previous works on the zero-shot cross-lingual text classification task and can obtain a better multilingual alignment.
Previous studies have proved that cross-lingual knowledge distillation can significantly improve the performance of pre-trained models for cross-lingual similarity matching tasks. However, the student model needs to be large in this operation. Otherwise, its performance will drop sharply, thus making it impractical to be deployed to memory-limited devices. To address this issue, we delve into cross-lingual knowledge distillation and propose a multi-stage distillation framework for constructing a small-size but high-performance cross-lingual model. In our framework, contrastive learning, bottleneck, and parameter recurrent strategies are combined to prevent performance from being compromised during the compression process. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can compress the size of XLM-R and MiniLM by more than 50\%, while the performance is only reduced by about 1%.
In this paper, we present NUWA-Infinity, a generative model for infinite visual synthesis, which is defined as the task of generating arbitrarily-sized high-resolution images or long-duration videos. An autoregressive over autoregressive generation mechanism is proposed to deal with this variable-size generation task, where a global patch-level autoregressive model considers the dependencies between patches, and a local token-level autoregressive model considers dependencies between visual tokens within each patch. A Nearby Context Pool (NCP) is introduced to cache-related patches already generated as the context for the current patch being generated, which can significantly save computation costs without sacrificing patch-level dependency modeling. An Arbitrary Direction Controller (ADC) is used to decide suitable generation orders for different visual synthesis tasks and learn order-aware positional embeddings. Compared to DALL-E, Imagen and Parti, NUWA-Infinity can generate high-resolution images with arbitrary sizes and support long-duration video generation additionally. Compared to NUWA, which also covers images and videos, NUWA-Infinity has superior visual synthesis capabilities in terms of resolution and variable-size generation. The GitHub link is https://github.com/microsoft/NUWA. The homepage link is https://nuwa-infinity.microsoft.com.
This paper presents a unified multimodal pre-trained model called N\"UWA that can generate new or manipulate existing visual data (i.e., images and videos) for various visual synthesis tasks. To cover language, image, and video at the same time for different scenarios, a 3D transformer encoder-decoder framework is designed, which can not only deal with videos as 3D data but also adapt to texts and images as 1D and 2D data, respectively. A 3D Nearby Attention (3DNA) mechanism is also proposed to consider the nature of the visual data and reduce the computational complexity. We evaluate N\"UWA on 8 downstream tasks. Compared to several strong baselines, N\"UWA achieves state-of-the-art results on text-to-image generation, text-to-video generation, video prediction, etc. Furthermore, it also shows surprisingly good zero-shot capabilities on text-guided image and video manipulation tasks. Project repo is https://github.com/microsoft/NUWA.
The task of video-based commonsense captioning aims to generate event-wise captions and meanwhile provide multiple commonsense descriptions (e.g., attribute, effect and intention) about the underlying event in the video. Prior works explore the commonsense captions by using separate networks for different commonsense types, which is time-consuming and lacks mining the interaction of different commonsense. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid Reasoning Network (HybridNet) to endow the neural networks with the capability of semantic-level reasoning and word-level reasoning. Firstly, we develop multi-commonsense learning for semantic-level reasoning by jointly training different commonsense types in a unified network, which encourages the interaction between the clues of multiple commonsense descriptions, event-wise captions and videos. Then, there are two steps to achieve the word-level reasoning: (1) a memory module records the history predicted sequence from the previous generation processes; (2) a memory-routed multi-head attention (MMHA) module updates the word-level attention maps by incorporating the history information from the memory module into the transformer decoder for word-level reasoning. Moreover, the multimodal features are used to make full use of diverse knowledge for commonsense reasoning. Experiments and abundant analysis on the large-scale Video-to-Commonsense benchmark show that our HybridNet achieves state-of-the-art performance compared with other methods.
We propose Unicoder-VL, a universal encoder that aims to learn joint representations of vision and language in a pre-training manner. Borrow ideas from cross-lingual pre-trained models, such as XLM and Unicoder, both visual and linguistic contents are fed into a multi-layer transformer for the cross-modal pre-training, where three pre-trained tasks are employed, including masked language model, masked object label prediction and visual-linguistic matching. The first two tasks learn context-aware representations for input tokens based on linguistic and visual contents jointly. The last task tries to predict whether an image and a text describe each other. After pretraining on large amounts of image-caption pairs, we transfer Unicoder-VL to image-text retrieval tasks with just one additional output layer, and achieve state-of-the-art performances on both MSCOCO and Flicker30K.