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Luke Bhan, Yuexin Bian, Miroslav Krstic, Yuanyuan Shi

Over the last decade, data-driven methods have surged in popularity, emerging as valuable tools for control theory. As such, neural network approximations of control feedback laws, system dynamics, and even Lyapunov functions have attracted growing attention. With the ascent of learning based control, the need for accurate, fast, and easy-to-use benchmarks has increased. In this work, we present the first learning-based environment for boundary control of PDEs. In our benchmark, we introduce three foundational PDE problems - a 1D transport PDE, a 1D reaction-diffusion PDE, and a 2D Navier-Stokes PDE - whose solvers are bundled in an user-friendly reinforcement learning gym. With this gym, we then present the first set of model-free, reinforcement learning algorithms for solving this series of benchmark problems, achieving stability, although at a higher cost compared to model-based PDE backstepping. With the set of benchmark environments and detailed examples, this work significantly lowers the barrier to entry for learning-based PDE control - a topic largely unexplored by the data-driven control community. The entire benchmark is available on Github along with detailed documentation and the presented reinforcement learning models are open sourced.

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Yufan Zhang, Honglin Wen, Yuexin Bian, Yuanyuan Shi

Large penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) brings huge uncertainty into the electricity markets. While existing deterministic market clearing fails to accommodate the uncertainty, the recently proposed stochastic market clearing struggles to achieve desirable market properties. In this work, we propose a value-oriented forecasting approach, which tactically determines the RESs generation that enters the day-ahead market. With such a forecast, the existing deterministic market clearing framework can be maintained, and the day-ahead and real-time overall operation cost is reduced. At the training phase, the forecast model parameters are estimated to minimize expected day-ahead and real-time overall operation costs, instead of minimizing forecast errors in a statistical sense. Theoretically, we derive the exact form of the loss function for training the forecast model that aligns with such a goal. For market clearing modeled by linear programs, this loss function is a piecewise linear function. Additionally, we derive the analytical gradient of the loss function with respect to the forecast, which inspires an efficient training strategy. A numerical study shows our forecasts can bring significant benefits of the overall cost reduction to deterministic market clearing, compared to quality-oriented forecasting approach.

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Maxence Lamarque, Luke Bhan, Yuanyuan Shi, Miroslav Krstic

To stabilize PDEs, feedback controllers require gain kernel functions, which are themselves governed by PDEs. Furthermore, these gain-kernel PDEs depend on the PDE plants' functional coefficients. The functional coefficients in PDE plants are often unknown. This requires an adaptive approach to PDE control, i.e., an estimation of the plant coefficients conducted concurrently with control, where a separate PDE for the gain kernel must be solved at each timestep upon the update in the plant coefficient function estimate. Solving a PDE at each timestep is computationally expensive and a barrier to the implementation of real-time adaptive control of PDEs. Recently, results in neural operator (NO) approximations of functional mappings have been introduced into PDE control, for replacing the computation of the gain kernel with a neural network that is trained, once offline, and reused in real-time for rapid solution of the PDEs. In this paper, we present the first result on applying NOs in adaptive PDE control, presented for a benchmark 1-D hyperbolic PDE with recirculation. We establish global stabilization via Lyapunov analysis, in the plant and parameter error states, and also present an alternative approach, via passive identifiers, which avoids the strong assumptions on kernel differentiability. We then present numerical simulations demonstrating stability and observe speedups up to three orders of magnitude, highlighting the real-time efficacy of neural operators in adaptive control. Our code (Github) is made publicly available for future researchers.

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Luke Bhan, Yuanyuan Shi, Iasson Karafyllis, Miroslav Krstic, James B. Rawlings

Observers for PDEs are themselves PDEs. Therefore, producing real time estimates with such observers is computationally burdensome. For both finite-dimensional and ODE systems, moving-horizon estimators (MHE) are operators whose output is the state estimate, while their inputs are the initial state estimate at the beginning of the horizon as well as the measured output and input signals over the moving time horizon. In this paper we introduce MHEs for PDEs which remove the need for a numerical solution of an observer PDE in real time. We accomplish this using the PDE backstepping method which, for certain classes of both hyperbolic and parabolic PDEs, produces moving-horizon state estimates explicitly. Precisely, to explicitly produce the state estimates, we employ a backstepping transformation of a hard-to-solve observer PDE into a target observer PDE, which is explicitly solvable. The MHEs we propose are not new observer designs but simply the explicit MHE realizations, over a moving horizon of arbitrary length, of the existing backstepping observers. Our PDE MHEs lack the optimality of the MHEs that arose as duals of MPC, but they are given explicitly, even for PDEs. In the paper we provide explicit formulae for MHEs for both hyperbolic and parabolic PDEs, as well as simulation results that illustrate theoretically guaranteed convergence of the MHEs.

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Zhouhan Lin, Cheng Deng, Le Zhou, Tianhang Zhang, Yi Xu, Yutong Xu, Zhongmou He, Yuanyuan Shi, Beiya Dai, Yunchong Song, Boyi Zeng, Qiyuan Chen, Tao Shi, Tianyu Huang, Yiwei Xu, Shu Wang, Luoyi Fu, Weinan Zhang, Junxian He, Chao Ma, Yunqiang Zhu, Xinbing Wang, Chenghu Zhou

Large language models (LLMs) have achieved huge success for their general knowledge and ability to solve a wide spectrum of tasks in natural language processing (NLP). Due to their impressive abilities, LLMs have shed light on potential inter-discipline applications to foster scientific discoveries of a specific domain by using artificial intelligence (AI for science, AI4S). In the meantime, utilizing NLP techniques in geoscience research and practice is wide and convoluted, contributing from knowledge extraction and document classification to question answering and knowledge discovery. In this work, we take the initial step to leverage LLM for science, through a rather straightforward approach. We try to specialize an LLM into geoscience, by further pre-training the model with a vast amount of texts in geoscience, as well as supervised fine-tuning (SFT) the resulting model with our custom collected instruction tuning dataset. These efforts result in a model GeoGalactica consisting of 30 billion parameters. To our best knowledge, it is the largest language model for the geoscience domain. More specifically, GeoGalactica is from further pre-training of Galactica. We train GeoGalactica over a geoscience-related text corpus containing 65 billion tokens curated from extensive data sources in the big science project Deep-time Digital Earth (DDE), preserving as the largest geoscience-specific text corpus. Then we fine-tune the model with 1 million pairs of instruction-tuning data consisting of questions that demand professional geoscience knowledge to answer. In this technical report, we will illustrate in detail all aspects of GeoGalactica, including data collection, data cleaning, base model selection, pre-training, SFT, and evaluation. We open-source our data curation tools and the checkpoints of GeoGalactica during the first 3/4 of pre-training.

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Cheng Deng, Tianhang Zhang, Zhongmou He, Qiyuan Chen, Yuanyuan Shi, Le Zhou, Luoyi Fu, Weinan Zhang, Xinbing Wang, Chenghu Zhou, Zhouhan Lin, Junxian He

Large language models (LLMs)have achieved great success in general domains of natural language processing. In this paper, we bring LLMs to the realm of geoscience, with the objective of advancing research and applications in this field. To this end, we present the first-ever LLM in geoscience, K2, alongside a suite of resources developed to further promote LLM research within geoscience. For instance, we have curated the first geoscience instruction tuning dataset, GeoSignal, which aims to align LLM responses to geoscience-related user queries. Additionally, we have established the first geoscience benchmark, GeoBenchmark, to evaluate LLMs in the context of geoscience. In this work, we experiment with a complete recipe to adapt a pretrained general-domain LLM to the geoscience domain. Specifically, we further train the LLaMA-7B model on over 1 million pieces of geoscience literature and utilize GeoSignal's supervised data to fine-tune the model. Moreover, we share a protocol that can efficiently gather domain-specific data and construct domain-supervised data, even in situations where manpower is scarce. Experiments conducted on the GeoBenchmark demonstrate the the effectiveness of our approach and datasets.

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Miroslav Krstic, Luke Bhan, Yuanyuan Shi

Unlike ODEs, whose models involve system matrices and whose controllers involve vector or matrix gains, PDE models involve functions in those roles functional coefficients, dependent on the spatial variables, and gain functions dependent on space as well. The designs of gains for controllers and observers for PDEs, such as PDE backstepping, are mappings of system model functions into gain functions. These infinite dimensional nonlinear operators are given in an implicit form through PDEs, in spatial variables, which need to be solved to determine the gain function for each new functional coefficient of the PDE. The need for solving such PDEs can be eliminated by learning and approximating the said design mapping in the form of a neural operator. Learning the neural operator requires a sufficient number of prior solutions for the design PDEs, offline, as well as the training of the operator. In recent work, we developed the neural operators for PDE backstepping designs for first order hyperbolic PDEs. Here we extend this framework to the more complex class of parabolic PDEs. The key theoretical question is whether the controllers are still stabilizing, and whether the observers are still convergent, if they employ the approximate functional gains generated by the neural operator. We provide affirmative answers to these questions, namely, we prove stability in closed loop under gains produced by neural operators. We illustrate the theoretical results with numerical tests and publish our code on github. The neural operators are three orders of magnitude faster in generating gain functions than PDE solvers for such gain functions. This opens up the opportunity for the use of this neural operator methodology in adaptive control and in gain scheduling control for nonlinear PDEs.

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Yuanyuan Shi, Zongyi Li, Huan Yu, Drew Steeves, Anima Anandkumar, Miroslav Krstic

State estimation is important for a variety of tasks, from forecasting to substituting for unmeasured states in feedback controllers. Performing real-time state estimation for PDEs using provably and rapidly converging observers, such as those based on PDE backstepping, is computationally expensive and in many cases prohibitive. We propose a framework for accelerating PDE observer computations using learning-based approaches that are much faster while maintaining accuracy. In particular, we employ the recently-developed Fourier Neural Operator (FNO) to learn the functional mapping from the initial observer state and boundary measurements to the state estimate. By employing backstepping observer gains for previously-designed observers with particular convergence rate guarantees, we provide numerical experiments that evaluate the increased computational efficiency gained with FNO. We consider the state estimation for three benchmark PDE examples motivated by applications: first, for a reaction-diffusion (parabolic) PDE whose state is estimated with an exponential rate of convergence; second, for a parabolic PDE with exact prescribed-time estimation; and, third, for a pair of coupled first-order hyperbolic PDEs that modeling traffic flow density and velocity. The ML-accelerated observers trained on simulation data sets for these PDEs achieves up to three orders of magnitude improvement in computational speed compared to classical methods. This demonstrates the attractiveness of the ML-accelerated observers for real-time state estimation and control.

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Chi Zhang, Yuanyuan Shi, Yize Chen

Recent advancements in reinforcement learning algorithms have opened doors for researchers to operate and optimize building energy management systems autonomously. However, the lack of an easily configurable building dynamical model and energy management task simulation and evaluation platform has arguably slowed the progress in developing advanced and dedicated reinforcement learning (RL) and control algorithms for building operation tasks. Here we propose "BEAR", a physics-principled Building Environment for Control And Reinforcement Learning. The platform allows researchers to benchmark both model-based and model-free controllers using a broad collection of standard building models in Python without co-simulation using external building simulators. In this paper, we discuss the design of this platform and compare it with other existing building simulation frameworks. We demonstrate the compatibility and performance of BEAR with different controllers, including both model predictive control (MPC) and several state-of-the-art RL methods with two case studies.

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Ningkun Zheng, Xiaoxiang Liu, Bolun Xu, Yuanyuan Shi

This paper proposes a novel energy storage price arbitrage algorithm combining supervised learning with dynamic programming. The proposed approach uses a neural network to directly predicts the opportunity cost at different energy storage state-of-charge levels, and then input the predicted opportunity cost into a model-based arbitrage control algorithm for optimal decisions. We generate the historical optimal opportunity value function using price data and a dynamic programming algorithm, then use it as the ground truth and historical price as predictors to train the opportunity value function prediction model. Our method achieves 65% to 90% profit compared to perfect foresight in case studies using different energy storage models and price data from New York State, which significantly outperforms existing model-based and learning-based methods. While guaranteeing high profitability, the algorithm is also light-weighted and can be trained and implemented with minimal computational cost. Our results also show that the learned prediction model has excellent transferability. The prediction model trained using price data from one region also provides good arbitrage results when tested over other regions.

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