Recently, it has been widely accepted by the research community that interactions between humans and cyber-physical infrastructures have played a significant role in determining the performance of the latter. The existing paradigm for designing cyber-physical systems for optimal performance focuses on developing models based on historical data. The impacts of context factors driving human system interaction are challenging and are difficult to capture and replicate in existing design models. As a result, many existing models do not or only partially address those context factors of a new design owing to the lack of capabilities to capture the context factors. This limitation in many existing models often causes performance gaps between predicted and measured results. We envision a new design environment, a cyber-physical human system (CPHS) where decision-making processes for physical infrastructures under design are intelligently connected to distributed resources over cyberinfrastructure such as experiments on design features and empirical evidence from operations of existing instances. The framework combines existing design models with context-aware design-specific data involving human-infrastructure interactions in new designs, using a machine learning approach to create augmented design models with improved predictive powers.
Building performance discrepancies between building design and operation are one of the causes that lead many new designs fail to achieve their goals and objectives. One of main factors contributing to the discrepancy is occupant behaviors. Occupants responding to a new design are influenced by several factors. Existing building performance models (BPMs) ignore or partially address those factors (called contextual factors) while developing BPMs. To potentially reduce the discrepancies and improve the prediction accuracy of BPMs, this paper proposes a computational framework for learning mixture models by using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) that appropriately combining existing BPMs with knowledge on occupant behaviors to contextual factors in new designs. Immersive virtual environments (IVEs) experiments are used to acquire data on such behaviors. Performance targets are used to guide appropriate combination of existing BPMs with knowledge on occupant behaviors. The resulting model obtained is called an augmented BPM. Two different experiments related to occupant lighting behaviors are shown as case study. The results reveal that augmented BPMs significantly outperformed existing BPMs with respect to achieving specified performance targets. The case study confirms the potential of the computational framework for improving prediction accuracy of BPMs during design.
Route Choice Models predict the route choices of travelers traversing an urban area. Most of the route choice models link route characteristics of alternative routes to those chosen by the drivers. The models play an important role in prediction of traffic levels on different routes and thus assist in development of efficient traffic management strategies that result in minimizing traffic delay and maximizing effective utilization of transport system. High fidelity route choice models are required to predict traffic levels with higher accuracy. Existing route choice models do not take into account dynamic contextual conditions such as the occurrence of an accident, the socio-cultural and economic background of drivers, other human behaviors, the dynamic personal risk level, etc. As a result, they can only make predictions at an aggregate level and for a fixed set of contextual factors. For higher fidelity, it is highly desirable to use a model that captures significance of subjective or contextual factors in route choice. This paper presents a novel approach for developing high-fidelity route choice models with increased predictive power by augmenting existing aggregate level baseline models with information on drivers' responses to contextual factors obtained from Stated Choice Experiments carried out in an Immersive Virtual Environment through the use of knowledge distillation.