Gradient-based learning in multi-agent systems is difficult because the gradient derives from a first-order model which does not account for the interaction between agents' learning processes. LOLA (arXiv:1709.04326) accounts for this by differentiating through one step of optimization. We extend the ideas of LOLA and develop a fully-general value-based approach to optimization. At the core is a function we call the meta-value, which at each point in joint-policy space gives for each agent a discounted sum of its objective over future optimization steps. We argue that the gradient of the meta-value gives a more reliable improvement direction than the gradient of the original objective, because the meta-value derives from empirical observations of the effects of optimization. We show how the meta-value can be approximated by training a neural network to minimize TD error along optimization trajectories in which agents follow the gradient of the meta-value. We analyze the behavior of our method on the Logistic Game and on the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.
Musical expression requires control of both what notes are played, and how they are performed. Conventional audio synthesizers provide detailed expressive controls, but at the cost of realism. Black-box neural audio synthesis and concatenative samplers can produce realistic audio, but have few mechanisms for control. In this work, we introduce MIDI-DDSP a hierarchical model of musical instruments that enables both realistic neural audio synthesis and detailed user control. Starting from interpretable Differentiable Digital Signal Processing (DDSP) synthesis parameters, we infer musical notes and high-level properties of their expressive performance (such as timbre, vibrato, dynamics, and articulation). This creates a 3-level hierarchy (notes, performance, synthesis) that affords individuals the option to intervene at each level, or utilize trained priors (performance given notes, synthesis given performance) for creative assistance. Through quantitative experiments and listening tests, we demonstrate that this hierarchy can reconstruct high-fidelity audio, accurately predict performance attributes for a note sequence, independently manipulate the attributes of a given performance, and as a complete system, generate realistic audio from a novel note sequence. By utilizing an interpretable hierarchy, with multiple levels of granularity, MIDI-DDSP opens the door to assistive tools to empower individuals across a diverse range of musical experience.
Machine learning models of music typically break up the task of composition into a chronological process, composing a piece of music in a single pass from beginning to end. On the contrary, human composers write music in a nonlinear fashion, scribbling motifs here and there, often revisiting choices previously made. In order to better approximate this process, we train a convolutional neural network to complete partial musical scores, and explore the use of blocked Gibbs sampling as an analogue to rewriting. Neither the model nor the generative procedure are tied to a particular causal direction of composition. Our model is an instance of orderless NADE (Uria et al., 2014), which allows more direct ancestral sampling. However, we find that Gibbs sampling greatly improves sample quality, which we demonstrate to be due to some conditional distributions being poorly modeled. Moreover, we show that even the cheap approximate blocked Gibbs procedure from Yao et al. (2014) yields better samples than ancestral sampling, based on both log-likelihood and human evaluation.
* Proceedings of the 18th International Society for Music Information
Retrieval Conference, ISMIR 2017
The recently proposed Unbiased Online Recurrent Optimization algorithm (UORO, arXiv:1702.05043) uses an unbiased approximation of RTRL to achieve fully online gradient-based learning in RNNs. In this work we analyze the variance of the gradient estimate computed by UORO, and propose several possible changes to the method which reduce this variance both in theory and practice. We also contribute significantly to the theoretical and intuitive understanding of UORO (and its existing variance reduction technique), and demonstrate a fundamental connection between its gradient estimate and the one that would be computed by REINFORCE if small amounts of noise were added to the RNN's hidden units.
We demonstrate a conditional autoregressive pipeline for efficient music recomposition, based on methods presented in van den Oord et al.(2017). Recomposition (Casal & Casey, 2010) focuses on reworking existing musical pieces, adhering to structure at a high level while also re-imagining other aspects of the work. This can involve reuse of pre-existing themes or parts of the original piece, while also requiring the flexibility to generate new content at different levels of granularity. Applying the aforementioned modeling pipeline to recomposition, we show diverse and structured generation conditioned on chord sequence annotations.
* 3 pages, 2 figures. In Proceedings of The Joint Workshop on Machine
Learning for Music, ICML 2018
We propose a reparameterization of LSTM that brings the benefits of batch normalization to recurrent neural networks. Whereas previous works only apply batch normalization to the input-to-hidden transformation of RNNs, we demonstrate that it is both possible and beneficial to batch-normalize the hidden-to-hidden transition, thereby reducing internal covariate shift between time steps. We evaluate our proposal on various sequential problems such as sequence classification, language modeling and question answering. Our empirical results show that our batch-normalized LSTM consistently leads to faster convergence and improved generalization.
We introduce the Dynamic Capacity Network (DCN), a neural network that can adaptively assign its capacity across different portions of the input data. This is achieved by combining modules of two types: low-capacity sub-networks and high-capacity sub-networks. The low-capacity sub-networks are applied across most of the input, but also provide a guide to select a few portions of the input on which to apply the high-capacity sub-networks. The selection is made using a novel gradient-based attention mechanism, that efficiently identifies input regions for which the DCN's output is most sensitive and to which we should devote more capacity. We focus our empirical evaluation on the Cluttered MNIST and SVHN image datasets. Our findings indicate that DCNs are able to drastically reduce the number of computations, compared to traditional convolutional neural networks, while maintaining similar or even better performance.
Theano is a Python library that allows to define, optimize, and evaluate mathematical expressions involving multi-dimensional arrays efficiently. Since its introduction, it has been one of the most used CPU and GPU mathematical compilers - especially in the machine learning community - and has shown steady performance improvements. Theano is being actively and continuously developed since 2008, multiple frameworks have been built on top of it and it has been used to produce many state-of-the-art machine learning models. The present article is structured as follows. Section I provides an overview of the Theano software and its community. Section II presents the principal features of Theano and how to use them, and compares them with other similar projects. Section III focuses on recently-introduced functionalities and improvements. Section IV compares the performance of Theano against Torch7 and TensorFlow on several machine learning models. Section V discusses current limitations of Theano and potential ways of improving it.