Optical flow estimation is very challenging in situations with transparent or occluded objects. In this work, we address these challenges at the task level by introducing Amodal Optical Flow, which integrates optical flow with amodal perception. Instead of only representing the visible regions, we define amodal optical flow as a multi-layered pixel-level motion field that encompasses both visible and occluded regions of the scene. To facilitate research on this new task, we extend the AmodalSynthDrive dataset to include pixel-level labels for amodal optical flow estimation. We present several strong baselines, along with the Amodal Flow Quality metric to quantify the performance in an interpretable manner. Furthermore, we propose the novel AmodalFlowNet as an initial step toward addressing this task. AmodalFlowNet consists of a transformer-based cost-volume encoder paired with a recurrent transformer decoder which facilitates recurrent hierarchical feature propagation and amodal semantic grounding. We demonstrate the tractability of amodal optical flow in extensive experiments and show its utility for downstream tasks such as panoptic tracking. We make the dataset, code, and trained models publicly available at http://amodal-flow.cs.uni-freiburg.de.
In this work, we study rapid, step-wise improvements of the loss in transformers when being confronted with multi-step decision tasks. We found that transformers struggle to learn the intermediate tasks, whereas CNNs have no such issue on the tasks we studied. When transformers learn the intermediate task, they do this rapidly and unexpectedly after both training and validation loss saturated for hundreds of epochs. We call these rapid improvements Eureka-moments, since the transformer appears to suddenly learn a previously incomprehensible task. Similar leaps in performance have become known as Grokking. In contrast to Grokking, for Eureka-moments, both the validation and the training loss saturate before rapidly improving. We trace the problem back to the Softmax function in the self-attention block of transformers and show ways to alleviate the problem. These fixes improve training speed. The improved models reach 95% of the baseline model in just 20% of training steps while having a much higher likelihood to learn the intermediate task, lead to higher final accuracy and are more robust to hyper-parameters.
Counterfactual explanations have emerged as a promising method for elucidating the behavior of opaque black-box models. Recently, several works leveraged pixel-space diffusion models for counterfactual generation. To handle noisy, adversarial gradients during counterfactual generation -- causing unrealistic artifacts or mere adversarial perturbations -- they required either auxiliary adversarially robust models or computationally intensive guidance schemes. However, such requirements limit their applicability, e.g., in scenarios with restricted access to the model's training data. To address these limitations, we introduce Latent Diffusion Counterfactual Explanations (LDCE). LDCE harnesses the capabilities of recent class- or text-conditional foundation latent diffusion models to expedite counterfactual generation and focus on the important, semantic parts of the data. Furthermore, we propose a novel consensus guidance mechanism to filter out noisy, adversarial gradients that are misaligned with the diffusion model's implicit classifier. We demonstrate the versatility of LDCE across a wide spectrum of models trained on diverse datasets with different learning paradigms. Finally, we showcase how LDCE can provide insights into model errors, enhancing our understanding of black-box model behavior.
Climate change is increasing the intensity and frequency of many extreme weather events, including heatwaves, which results in increased thermal discomfort and mortality rates. While global mitigation action is undoubtedly necessary, so is climate adaptation, e.g., through climate-sensitive urban planning. Among the most promising strategies is harnessing the benefits of urban trees in shading and cooling pedestrian-level environments. Our work investigates the challenge of optimal placement of such trees. Physical simulations can estimate the radiative and thermal impact of trees on human thermal comfort but induce high computational costs. This rules out optimization of tree placements over large areas and considering effects over longer time scales. Hence, we employ neural networks to simulate the point-wise mean radiant temperatures--a driving factor of outdoor human thermal comfort--across various time scales, spanning from daily variations to extended time scales of heatwave events and even decades. To optimize tree placements, we harness the innate local effect of trees within the iterated local search framework with tailored adaptations. We show the efficacy of our approach across a wide spectrum of study areas and time scales. We believe that our approach is a step towards empowering decision-makers, urban designers and planners to proactively and effectively assess the potential of urban trees to mitigate heat stress.
Learning-based manipulation policies from image inputs often show weak task transfer capabilities. In contrast, visual servoing methods allow efficient task transfer in high-precision scenarios while requiring only a few demonstrations. In this work, we present a framework that formulates the visual servoing task as graph traversal. Our method not only extends the robustness of visual servoing, but also enables multitask capability based on a few task-specific demonstrations. We construct demonstration graphs by splitting existing demonstrations and recombining them. In order to traverse the demonstration graph in the inference case, we utilize a similarity function that helps select the best demonstration for a specific task. This enables us to compute the shortest path through the graph. Ultimately, we show that recombining demonstrations leads to higher task-respective success. We present extensive simulation and real-world experimental results that demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.
In this paper, we show that recent advances in video representation learning and pre-trained vision-language models allow for substantial improvements in self-supervised video object localization. We propose a method that first localizes objects in videos via a slot attention approach and then assigns text to the obtained slots. The latter is achieved by an unsupervised way to read localized semantic information from the pre-trained CLIP model. The resulting video object localization is entirely unsupervised apart from the implicit annotation contained in CLIP, and it is effectively the first unsupervised approach that yields good results on regular video benchmarks.
Unsupervised object-centric learning methods allow the partitioning of scenes into entities without additional localization information and are excellent candidates for reducing the annotation burden of multiple-object tracking (MOT) pipelines. Unfortunately, they lack two key properties: objects are often split into parts and are not consistently tracked over time. In fact, state-of-the-art models achieve pixel-level accuracy and temporal consistency by relying on supervised object detection with additional ID labels for the association through time. This paper proposes a video object-centric model for MOT. It consists of an index-merge module that adapts the object-centric slots into detection outputs and an object memory module that builds complete object prototypes to handle occlusions. Benefited from object-centric learning, we only require sparse detection labels (0%-6.25%) for object localization and feature binding. Relying on our self-supervised Expectation-Maximization-inspired loss for object association, our approach requires no ID labels. Our experiments significantly narrow the gap between the existing object-centric model and the fully supervised state-of-the-art and outperform several unsupervised trackers.
Reconstruction-based methods have struggled to achieve competitive performance on anomaly detection. In this paper, we introduce Denoising Diffusion Anomaly Detection (DDAD). We propose a novel denoising process for image reconstruction conditioned on a target image. This results in a coherent restoration that closely resembles the target image. Subsequently, our anomaly detection framework leverages this conditioning where the target image is set as the input image to guide the denoising process, leading to defectless reconstruction while maintaining nominal patterns. We localise anomalies via a pixel-wise and feature-wise comparison of the input and reconstructed image. Finally, to enhance the effectiveness of feature comparison, we introduce a domain adaptation method that utilises generated examples from our conditioned denoising process to fine-tune the feature extractor. The veracity of the approach is demonstrated on various datasets including MVTec and VisA benchmarks, achieving state-of-the-art results of 99.5% and 99.3% image-level AUROC respectively.
Active learning automatically selects samples for annotation from a data pool to achieve maximum performance with minimum annotation cost. This is particularly critical for semantic segmentation, where annotations are costly. In this work, we show in the context of semantic segmentation that the data distribution is decisive for the performance of the various active learning objectives proposed in the literature. Particularly, redundancy in the data, as it appears in most driving scenarios and video datasets, plays a large role. We demonstrate that the integration of semi-supervised learning with active learning can improve performance when the two objectives are aligned. Our experimental study shows that current active learning benchmarks for segmentation in driving scenarios are not realistic since they operate on data that is already curated for maximum diversity. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic evaluation scheme in which the value of active learning becomes clearly visible, both by itself and in combination with semi-supervised learning.