Large pre-trained models can dramatically reduce the amount of task-specific data required to solve a problem, but they often fail to capture domain-specific nuances out of the box. The Web likely contains the information necessary to excel on any specific application, but identifying the right data a priori is challenging. This paper shows how to leverage recent advances in NLP and multi-modal learning to augment a pre-trained model with search engine retrieval. We propose to retrieve useful data from the Web at test time based on test cases that the model is uncertain about. Different from existing retrieval-augmented approaches, we then update the model to address this underlying uncertainty. We demonstrate substantial improvements in zero-shot performance, e.g. a remarkable increase of 15 percentage points in accuracy on the Stanford Cars and Flowers datasets. We also present extensive experiments that explore the impact of noisy retrieval and different learning strategies.
This paper proposes a new method for differentiating through optimal trajectories arising from non-convex, constrained discrete-time optimal control (COC) problems using the implicit function theorem (IFT). Previous works solve a differential Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) system for the trajectory derivative, and achieve this efficiently by solving an auxiliary Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem. In contrast, we directly evaluate the matrix equations which arise from applying variable elimination on the Lagrange multiplier terms in the (differential) KKT system. By appropriately accounting for the structure of the terms within the resulting equations, we show that the trajectory derivatives scale linearly with the number of timesteps. Furthermore, our approach allows for easy parallelization, significantly improved scalability with model size, direct computation of vector-Jacobian products and improved numerical stability compared to prior works. As an additional contribution, we unify prior works, addressing claims that computing trajectory derivatives using IFT scales quadratically with the number of timesteps. We evaluate our method on a both synthetic benchmark and four challenging, learning from demonstration benchmarks including a 6-DoF maneuvering quadrotor and 6-DoF rocket powered landing.
In the pursuit of efficient automated content creation, procedural generation, leveraging modifiable parameters and rule-based systems, emerges as a promising approach. Nonetheless, it could be a demanding endeavor, given its intricate nature necessitating a deep understanding of rules, algorithms, and parameters. To reduce workload, we introduce 3D-GPT, a framework utilizing large language models~(LLMs) for instruction-driven 3D modeling. 3D-GPT positions LLMs as proficient problem solvers, dissecting the procedural 3D modeling tasks into accessible segments and appointing the apt agent for each task. 3D-GPT integrates three core agents: the task dispatch agent, the conceptualization agent, and the modeling agent. They collaboratively achieve two objectives. First, it enhances concise initial scene descriptions, evolving them into detailed forms while dynamically adapting the text based on subsequent instructions. Second, it integrates procedural generation, extracting parameter values from enriched text to effortlessly interface with 3D software for asset creation. Our empirical investigations confirm that 3D-GPT not only interprets and executes instructions, delivering reliable results but also collaborates effectively with human designers. Furthermore, it seamlessly integrates with Blender, unlocking expanded manipulation possibilities. Our work highlights the potential of LLMs in 3D modeling, offering a basic framework for future advancements in scene generation and animation.
Recently, the DETR framework has emerged as the dominant approach for human--object interaction (HOI) research. In particular, two-stage transformer-based HOI detectors are amongst the most performant and training-efficient approaches. However, these often condition HOI classification on object features that lack fine-grained contextual information, eschewing pose and orientation information in favour of visual cues about object identity and box extremities. This naturally hinders the recognition of complex or ambiguous interactions. In this work, we study these issues through visualisations and carefully designed experiments. Accordingly, we investigate how best to re-introduce image features via cross-attention. With an improved query design, extensive exploration of keys and values, and box pair positional embeddings as spatial guidance, our model with enhanced predicate visual context (PViC) outperforms state-of-the-art methods on the HICO-DET and V-COCO benchmarks, while maintaining low training cost.
Recent research in language-guided visual navigation has demonstrated a significant demand for the diversity of traversable environments and the quantity of supervision for training generalizable agents. To tackle the common data scarcity issue in existing vision-and-language navigation datasets, we propose an effective paradigm for generating large-scale data for learning, which applies 1200+ photo-realistic environments from HM3D and Gibson datasets and synthesizes 4.9 million instruction trajectory pairs using fully-accessible resources on the web. Importantly, we investigate the influence of each component in this paradigm on the agent's performance and study how to adequately apply the augmented data to pre-train and fine-tune an agent. Thanks to our large-scale dataset, the performance of an existing agent can be pushed up (+11% absolute with regard to previous SoTA) to a significantly new best of 80% single-run success rate on the R2R test split by simple imitation learning. The long-lasting generalization gap between navigating in seen and unseen environments is also reduced to less than 1% (versus 8% in the previous best method). Moreover, our paradigm also facilitates different models to achieve new state-of-the-art navigation results on CVDN, REVERIE, and R2R in continuous environments.
Being able to perceive the semantics and the spatial structure of the environment is essential for visual navigation of a household robot. However, most existing works only employ visual backbones pre-trained either with independent images for classification or with self-supervised learning methods to adapt to the indoor navigation domain, neglecting the spatial relationships that are essential to the learning of navigation. Inspired by the behavior that humans naturally build semantically and spatially meaningful cognitive maps in their brains during navigation, in this paper, we propose a novel navigational-specific visual representation learning method by contrasting the agent's egocentric views and semantic maps (Ego$^2$-Map). We apply the visual transformer as the backbone encoder and train the model with data collected from the large-scale Habitat-Matterport3D environments. Ego$^2$-Map learning transfers the compact and rich information from a map, such as objects, structure and transition, to the agent's egocentric representations for navigation. Experiments show that agents using our learned representations on object-goal navigation outperform recent visual pre-training methods. Moreover, our representations significantly improve vision-and-language navigation in continuous environments for both high-level and low-level action spaces, achieving new state-of-the-art results of 47% SR and 41% SPL on the test server.
We explore two differentiable deep declarative layers, namely least squares on sphere (LESS) and implicit eigen decomposition (IED), for learning the principal matrix features (PMaF). It can be used to represent data features with a low-dimensional vector containing dominant information from a high-dimensional matrix. We first solve the problems with iterative optimization in the forward pass and then backpropagate the solution for implicit gradients under a bi-level optimization framework. Particularly, adaptive descent steps with the backtracking line search method and descent decay in the tangent space are studied to improve the forward pass efficiency of LESS. Meanwhile, exploited data structures are used to greatly reduce the computational complexity in the backward pass of LESS and IED. Empirically, we demonstrate the superiority of our layers over the off-the-shelf baselines by comparing the solution optimality and computational requirements.