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Abstract:Multi-task learning (MTL) is an inductive transfer mechanism designed to leverage useful information from multiple tasks to improve generalization performance compared to single-task learning. It has been extensively explored in traditional machine learning to address issues such as data sparsity and overfitting in neural networks. In this work, we apply MTL to problems in science and engineering governed by partial differential equations (PDEs). However, implementing MTL in this context is complex, as it requires task-specific modifications to accommodate various scenarios representing different physical processes. To this end, we present a multi-task deep operator network (MT-DeepONet) to learn solutions across various functional forms of source terms in a PDE and multiple geometries in a single concurrent training session. We introduce modifications in the branch network of the vanilla DeepONet to account for various functional forms of a parameterized coefficient in a PDE. Additionally, we handle parameterized geometries by introducing a binary mask in the branch network and incorporating it into the loss term to improve convergence and generalization to new geometry tasks. Our approach is demonstrated on three benchmark problems: (1) learning different functional forms of the source term in the Fisher equation; (2) learning multiple geometries in a 2D Darcy Flow problem and showcasing better transfer learning capabilities to new geometries; and (3) learning 3D parameterized geometries for a heat transfer problem and demonstrate the ability to predict on new but similar geometries. Our MT-DeepONet framework offers a novel approach to solving PDE problems in engineering and science under a unified umbrella based on synergistic learning that reduces the overall training cost for neural operators.

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Abstract:The deep operator network (DeepONet) is a popular neural operator architecture that has shown promise in solving partial differential equations (PDEs) by using deep neural networks to map between infinite-dimensional function spaces. In the absence of labeled datasets, we utilize the PDE residual loss to learn the physical system, an approach known as physics-informed DeepONet. This method faces significant computational challenges, primarily due to the curse of dimensionality, as the computational cost increases exponentially with finer discretization. In this paper, we introduce the Separable DeepONet framework to address these challenges and improve scalability for high-dimensional PDEs. Our approach involves a factorization technique where sub-networks handle individual one-dimensional coordinates, thereby reducing the number of forward passes and the size of the Jacobian matrix. By using forward-mode automatic differentiation, we further optimize the computational cost related to the Jacobian matrix. As a result, our modifications lead to a linear scaling of computational cost with discretization density, making Separable DeepONet suitable for high-dimensional PDEs. We validate the effectiveness of the separable architecture through three benchmark PDE models: the viscous Burgers equation, Biot's consolidation theory, and a parametrized heat equation. In all cases, our proposed framework achieves comparable or improved accuracy while significantly reducing computational time compared to conventional DeepONet. These results demonstrate the potential of Separable DeepONet in efficiently solving complex, high-dimensional PDEs, advancing the field of physics-informed machine learning.

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Abstract:The Deep operator network (DeepONet) is a powerful yet simple neural operator architecture that utilizes two deep neural networks to learn mappings between infinite-dimensional function spaces. This architecture is highly flexible, allowing the evaluation of the solution field at any location within the desired domain. However, it imposes a strict constraint on the input space, requiring all input functions to be discretized at the same locations; this limits its practical applications. In this work, we introduce a Resolution Independent Neural Operator (RINO) that provides a framework to make DeepONet resolution-independent, enabling it to handle input functions that are arbitrarily, but sufficiently finely, discretized. To this end, we propose a dictionary learning algorithm to adaptively learn a set of appropriate continuous basis functions, parameterized as implicit neural representations (INRs), from the input data. These basis functions are then used to project arbitrary input function data as a point cloud onto an embedding space (i.e., a vector space of finite dimensions) with dimensionality equal to the dictionary size, which can be directly used by DeepONet without any architectural changes. In particular, we utilize sinusoidal representation networks (SIRENs) as our trainable INR basis functions. We demonstrate the robustness and applicability of RINO in handling arbitrarily (but sufficiently richly) sampled input functions during both training and inference through several numerical examples.

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Abstract:Deep operator networks (DeepONets, DONs) offer a distinct advantage over traditional neural networks in their ability to be trained on multi-resolution data. This property becomes especially relevant in real-world scenarios where high-resolution measurements are difficult to obtain, while low-resolution data is more readily available. Nevertheless, DeepONets alone often struggle to capture and maintain dependencies over long sequences compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms. We propose a novel architecture, named DON-LSTM, which extends the DeepONet with a long short-term memory network (LSTM). Combining these two architectures, we equip the network with explicit mechanisms to leverage multi-resolution data, as well as capture temporal dependencies in long sequences. We test our method on long-time-evolution modeling of multiple non-linear systems and show that the proposed multi-resolution DON-LSTM achieves significantly lower generalization error and requires fewer high-resolution samples compared to its vanilla counterparts.

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Authors:Nikolas Borrel-Jensen, Somdatta Goswami, Allan P. Engsig-Karup, George Em Karniadakis, Cheol-Ho Jeong

Abstract:We address the challenge of sound propagation simulations in $3$D virtual rooms with moving sources, which have applications in virtual/augmented reality, game audio, and spatial computing. Solutions to the wave equation can describe wave phenomena such as diffraction and interference. However, simulating them using conventional numerical discretization methods with hundreds of source and receiver positions is intractable, making stimulating a sound field with moving sources impractical. To overcome this limitation, we propose using deep operator networks to approximate linear wave-equation operators. This enables the rapid prediction of sound propagation in realistic 3D acoustic scenes with moving sources, achieving millisecond-scale computations. By learning a compact surrogate model, we avoid the offline calculation and storage of impulse responses for all relevant source/listener pairs. Our experiments, including various complex scene geometries, show good agreement with reference solutions, with root mean squared errors ranging from 0.02 Pa to 0.10 Pa. Notably, our method signifies a paradigm shift as no prior machine learning approach has achieved precise predictions of complete wave fields within realistic domains. We anticipate that our findings will drive further exploration of deep neural operator methods, advancing research in immersive user experiences within virtual environments.

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Abstract:Operator regression provides a powerful means of constructing discretization-invariant emulators for partial-differential equations (PDEs) describing physical systems. Neural operators specifically employ deep neural networks to approximate mappings between infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. As data-driven models, neural operators require the generation of labeled observations, which in cases of complex high-fidelity models result in high-dimensional datasets containing redundant and noisy features, which can hinder gradient-based optimization. Mapping these high-dimensional datasets to a low-dimensional latent space of salient features can make it easier to work with the data and also enhance learning. In this work, we investigate the latent deep operator network (L-DeepONet), an extension of standard DeepONet, which leverages latent representations of high-dimensional PDE input and output functions identified with suitable autoencoders. We illustrate that L-DeepONet outperforms the standard approach in terms of both accuracy and computational efficiency across diverse time-dependent PDEs, e.g., modeling the growth of fracture in brittle materials, convective fluid flows, and large-scale atmospheric flows exhibiting multiscale dynamical features.

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Abstract:We develop a data-driven deep neural operator framework to approximate multiple output states for a diesel engine and generate real-time predictions with reasonable accuracy. As emission norms become more stringent, the need for fast and accurate models that enable analysis of system behavior have become an essential requirement for system development. The fast transient processes involved in the operation of a combustion engine make it difficult to develop accurate physics-based models for such systems. As an alternative to physics based models, we develop an operator-based regression model (DeepONet) to learn the relevant output states for a mean-value gas flow engine model using the engine operating conditions as input variables. We have adopted a mean-value model as a benchmark for comparison, simulated using Simulink. The developed approach necessitates using the initial conditions of the output states to predict the accurate sequence over the temporal domain. To this end, a sequence-to-sequence approach is embedded into the proposed framework. The accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing the prediction output to ground truth generated from Simulink model. The maximum $\mathcal L_2$ relative error observed was approximately $6.5\%$. The sensitivity of the DeepONet model is evaluated under simulated noise conditions and the model shows relatively low sensitivity to noise. The uncertainty in model prediction is further assessed by using a mean ensemble approach. The worst-case error at the $(\mu + 2\sigma)$ boundary was found to be $12\%$. The proposed framework provides the ability to predict output states in real-time and enables data-driven learning of complex input-output operator mapping. As a result, this model can be applied during initial development stages, where accurate models may not be available.

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Abstract:We introduce the Laplace neural operator (LNO), which leverages the Laplace transform to decompose the input space. Unlike the Fourier Neural Operator (FNO), LNO can handle non-periodic signals, account for transient responses, and exhibit exponential convergence. LNO incorporates the pole-residue relationship between the input and the output space, enabling greater interpretability and improved generalization ability. Herein, we demonstrate the superior approximation accuracy of a single Laplace layer in LNO over four Fourier modules in FNO in approximating the solutions of three ODEs (Duffing oscillator, driven gravity pendulum, and Lorenz system) and three PDEs (Euler-Bernoulli beam, diffusion equation, and reaction-diffusion system). Notably, LNO outperforms FNO in capturing transient responses in undamped scenarios. For the linear Euler-Bernoulli beam and diffusion equation, LNO's exact representation of the pole-residue formulation yields significantly better results than FNO. For the nonlinear reaction-diffusion system, LNO's errors are smaller than those of FNO, demonstrating the effectiveness of using system poles and residues as network parameters for operator learning. Overall, our results suggest that LNO represents a promising new approach for learning neural operators that map functions between infinite-dimensional spaces.

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Abstract:Deep neural networks are an attractive alternative for simulating complex dynamical systems, as in comparison to traditional scientific computing methods, they offer reduced computational costs during inference and can be trained directly from observational data. Existing methods, however, cannot extrapolate accurately and are prone to error accumulation in long-time integration. Herein, we address this issue by combining neural operators with recurrent neural networks to construct a novel and effective architecture, resulting in superior accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art. The new hybrid model is based on operator learning while offering a recurrent structure to capture temporal dependencies. The integrated framework is shown to stabilize the solution and reduce error accumulation for both interpolation and extrapolation of the Korteweg-de Vries equation.

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Abstract:We utilize neural operators to learn the solution propagator for the challenging chemical kinetics equation. Specifically, we apply the deep operator network (DeepONet) along with its extensions, such as the autoencoder-based DeepONet and the newly proposed Partition-of-Unity (PoU-) DeepONet to study a range of examples, including the ROBERS problem with three species, the POLLU problem with 25 species, pure kinetics of the syngas skeletal model for $CO/H_2$ burning, which contains 11 species and 21 reactions and finally, a temporally developing planar $CO/H_2$ jet flame (turbulent flame) using the same syngas mechanism. We have demonstrated the advantages of the proposed approach through these numerical examples. Specifically, to train the DeepONet for the syngas model, we solve the skeletal kinetic model for different initial conditions. In the first case, we parametrize the initial conditions based on equivalence ratios and initial temperature values. In the second case, we perform a direct numerical simulation of a two-dimensional temporally developing $CO/H_2$ jet flame. Then, we initialize the kinetic model by the thermochemical states visited by a subset of grid points at different time snapshots. Stiff problems are computationally expensive to solve with traditional stiff solvers. Thus, this work aims to develop a neural operator-based surrogate model to solve stiff chemical kinetics. The operator, once trained offline, can accurately integrate the thermochemical state for arbitrarily large time advancements, leading to significant computational gains compared to stiff integration schemes.

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