The detection and localization of highly realistic deepfake audio-visual content are challenging even for the most advanced state-of-the-art methods. While most of the research efforts in this domain are focused on detecting high-quality deepfake images and videos, only a few works address the problem of the localization of small segments of audio-visual manipulations embedded in real videos. In this research, we emulate the process of such content generation and propose the AV-Deepfake1M dataset. The dataset contains content-driven (i) video manipulations, (ii) audio manipulations, and (iii) audio-visual manipulations for more than 2K subjects resulting in a total of more than 1M videos. The paper provides a thorough description of the proposed data generation pipeline accompanied by a rigorous analysis of the quality of the generated data. The comprehensive benchmark of the proposed dataset utilizing state-of-the-art deepfake detection and localization methods indicates a significant drop in performance compared to previous datasets. The proposed dataset will play a vital role in building the next-generation deepfake localization methods. The dataset and associated code are available at https://github.com/ControlNet/AV-Deepfake1M .
Empathy is a social skill that indicates an individual's ability to understand others. Over the past few years, empathy has drawn attention from various disciplines, including but not limited to Affective Computing, Cognitive Science and Psychology. Empathy is a context-dependent term; thus, detecting or recognising empathy has potential applications in society, healthcare and education. Despite being a broad and overlapping topic, the avenue of empathy detection studies leveraging Machine Learning remains underexplored from a holistic literature perspective. To this end, we systematically collect and screen 801 papers from 10 well-known databases and analyse the selected 54 papers. We group the papers based on input modalities of empathy detection systems, i.e., text, audiovisual, audio and physiological signals. We examine modality-specific pre-processing and network architecture design protocols, popular dataset descriptions and availability details, and evaluation protocols. We further discuss the potential applications, deployment challenges and research gaps in the Affective Computing-based empathy domain, which can facilitate new avenues of exploration. We believe that our work is a stepping stone to developing a privacy-preserving and unbiased empathic system inclusive of culture, diversity and multilingualism that can be deployed in practice to enhance the overall well-being of human life.
Domain adaptation, the process of training a model in one domain and applying it to another, has been extensively explored in machine learning. While training a domain-specific foundation model (FM) from scratch is an option, recent methods have focused on adapting pre-trained FMs for domain-specific tasks. However, our experiments reveal that either approach does not consistently achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) results in the target domain. In this work, we study extractive question answering within closed domains and introduce the concept of targeted pre-training. This involves determining and generating relevant data to further pre-train our models, as opposed to the conventional philosophy of utilizing domain-specific FMs trained on a wide range of data. Our proposed framework uses Galactica to generate synthetic, ``targeted'' corpora that align with specific writing styles and topics, such as research papers and radiology reports. This process can be viewed as a form of knowledge distillation. We apply our method to two biomedical extractive question answering datasets, COVID-QA and RadQA, achieving a new benchmark on the former and demonstrating overall improvements on the latter. Code available at https://github.com/saptarshi059/CDQA-v1-Targetted-PreTraining/tree/main.
The interaction between elephants and their environment has profound implications for both ecology and conservation strategies. This study presents an analytical approach to decipher the intricate patterns of elephant movement in Sub-Saharan Africa, concentrating on key ecological drivers such as seasonal variations and rainfall patterns. Despite the complexities surrounding these influential factors, our analysis provides a holistic view of elephant migratory behavior in the context of the dynamic African landscape. Our comprehensive approach enables us to predict the potential impact of these ecological determinants on elephant migration, a critical step in establishing informed conservation strategies. This projection is particularly crucial given the impacts of global climate change on seasonal and rainfall patterns, which could substantially influence elephant movements in the future. The findings of our work aim to not only advance the understanding of movement ecology but also foster a sustainable coexistence of humans and elephants in Sub-Saharan Africa. By predicting potential elephant routes, our work can inform strategies to minimize human-elephant conflict, effectively manage land use, and enhance anti-poaching efforts. This research underscores the importance of integrating movement ecology and climatic variables for effective wildlife management and conservation planning.
In this paper, we lay out a vision for analysing semantic trajectory traces and generating synthetic semantic trajectory data (SSTs) using generative language model. Leveraging the advancements in deep learning, as evident by progress in the field of natural language processing (NLP), computer vision, etc. we intend to create intelligent models that can study the semantic trajectories in various contexts, predicting future trends, increasing machine understanding of the movement of animals, humans, goods, etc. enhancing human-computer interactions, and contributing to an array of applications ranging from urban-planning to personalized recommendation engines and business strategy.
We introduce NightPulse, an interactive tool for Night-time light (NTL) data visualization and analytics, which enables researchers and stakeholders to explore and analyze NTL data with a user-friendly platform. Powered by efficient system architecture, NightPulse supports image segmentation, clustering, and change pattern detection to identify urban development and sprawl patterns. It captures temporal trends of NTL and semantics of cities, answering questions about demographic factors, city boundaries, and unusual differences.
This paper proposes a feedback mechanism to 'break bad habits' using the Pavlok device. Pavlok utilises beeps, vibration and shocks as a mode of aversion technique to help individuals with behaviour modification. While the device can be useful in certain periodic daily life situations, like alarms and exercise notifications, the device relies on manual operations that limit its usage. To this end, we design a user interface to generate an automatic feedback mechanism that integrates Pavlok and a deep learning based model to detect certain behaviours via an integrated user interface i.e. mobile or desktop application. Our proposed solution is implemented and verified in the context of snoring, which first detects audio from the environment following a prediction of whether the audio content is a snore or not. Based on the prediction of the deep learning model, we use Pavlok to alert users for preventive measures. We believe that this simple solution can help people to change their atomic habits, which may lead to long-term benefits.
Most deepfake detection methods focus on detecting spatial and/or spatio-temporal changes in facial attributes. This is because available benchmark datasets contain mostly visual-only modifications. However, a sophisticated deepfake may include small segments of audio or audio-visual manipulations that can completely change the meaning of the content. To addresses this gap, we propose and benchmark a new dataset, Localized Audio Visual DeepFake (LAV-DF), consisting of strategic content-driven audio, visual and audio-visual manipulations. The proposed baseline method, Boundary Aware Temporal Forgery Detection (BA-TFD), is a 3D Convolutional Neural Network-based architecture which efficiently captures multimodal manipulations. We further improve (i.e. BA-TFD+) the baseline method by replacing the backbone with a Multiscale Vision Transformer and guide the training process with contrastive, frame classification, boundary matching and multimodal boundary matching loss functions. The quantitative analysis demonstrates the superiority of BA- TFD+ on temporal forgery localization and deepfake detection tasks using several benchmark datasets including our newly proposed dataset. The dataset, models and code are available at https://github.com/ControlNet/LAV-DF.
This paper proposes a self-supervised approach to learn universal facial representations from videos, that can transfer across a variety of facial analysis tasks such as Facial Attribute Recognition (FAR), Facial Expression Recognition (FER), DeepFake Detection (DFD), and Lip Synchronization (LS). Our proposed framework, named MARLIN, is a facial video masked autoencoder, that learns highly robust and generic facial embeddings from abundantly available non-annotated web crawled facial videos. As a challenging auxiliary task, MARLIN reconstructs the spatio-temporal details of the face from the densely masked facial regions which mainly include eyes, nose, mouth, lips, and skin to capture local and global aspects that in turn help in encoding generic and transferable features. Through a variety of experiments on diverse downstream tasks, we demonstrate MARLIN to be an excellent facial video encoder as well as feature extractor, that performs consistently well across a variety of downstream tasks including FAR (1.13% gain over supervised benchmark), FER (2.64% gain over unsupervised benchmark), DFD (1.86% gain over unsupervised benchmark), LS (29.36% gain for Frechet Inception Distance), and even in low data regime. Our codes and pre-trained models will be made public.
Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to interpret gaze direction in an unconstrained environment with limited supervision. Owing to data curation and annotation issues, replicating gaze estimation method to other platforms, such as unconstrained outdoor or AR/VR, might lead to significant drop in performance due to insufficient availability of accurately annotated data for model training. In this paper, we explore an interesting yet challenging problem of gaze estimation method with a limited amount of labelled data. The proposed method distills knowledge from the labelled subset with visual features; including identity-specific appearance, gaze trajectory consistency and motion features. Given a gaze trajectory, the method utilizes label information of only the start and the end frames of a gaze sequence. An extension of the proposed method further reduces the requirement of labelled frames to only the start frame with a minor drop in the generated label's quality. We evaluate the proposed method on four benchmark datasets (CAVE, TabletGaze, MPII and Gaze360) as well as web-crawled YouTube videos. Our proposed method reduces the annotation effort to as low as 2.67%, with minimal impact on performance; indicating the potential of our model enabling gaze estimation 'in-the-wild' setup.