While large-scale pre-trained text-to-image models can synthesize diverse and high-quality human-centric images, an intractable problem is how to preserve the face identity for conditioned face images. Existing methods either require time-consuming optimization for each face-identity or learning an efficient encoder at the cost of harming the editability of models. In this work, we present an optimization-free method for each face identity, meanwhile keeping the editability for text-to-image models. Specifically, we propose a novel face-identity encoder to learn an accurate representation of human faces, which applies multi-scale face features followed by a multi-embedding projector to directly generate the pseudo words in the text embedding space. Besides, we propose self-augmented editability learning to enhance the editability of models, which is achieved by constructing paired generated face and edited face images using celebrity names, aiming at transferring mature ability of off-the-shelf text-to-image models in celebrity faces to unseen faces. Extensive experiments show that our methods can generate identity-preserved images under different scenes at a much faster speed.
Diffusion models are able to generate photorealistic images in arbitrary scenes. However, when applying diffusion models to image translation, there exists a trade-off between maintaining spatial structure and high-quality content. Besides, existing methods are mainly based on test-time optimization or fine-tuning model for each input image, which are extremely time-consuming for practical applications. To address these issues, we propose a new approach for flexible image translation by learning a layout-aware image condition together with a text condition. Specifically, our method co-encodes images and text into a new domain during the training phase. In the inference stage, we can choose images/text or both as the conditions for each time step, which gives users more flexible control over layout and content. Experimental comparisons of our method with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate our model performs best in both style image translation and semantic image translation and took the shortest time.
Scene text spotting is of great importance to the computer vision community due to its wide variety of applications. Recent methods attempt to introduce linguistic knowledge for challenging recognition rather than pure visual classification. However, how to effectively model the linguistic rules in end-to-end deep networks remains a research challenge. In this paper, we argue that the limited capacity of language models comes from 1) implicit language modeling; 2) unidirectional feature representation; and 3) language model with noise input. Correspondingly, we propose an autonomous, bidirectional and iterative ABINet++ for scene text spotting. Firstly, the autonomous suggests enforcing explicitly language modeling by decoupling the recognizer into vision model and language model and blocking gradient flow between both models. Secondly, a novel bidirectional cloze network (BCN) as the language model is proposed based on bidirectional feature representation. Thirdly, we propose an execution manner of iterative correction for the language model which can effectively alleviate the impact of noise input. Finally, to polish ABINet++ in long text recognition, we propose to aggregate horizontal features by embedding Transformer units inside a U-Net, and design a position and content attention module which integrates character order and content to attend to character features precisely. ABINet++ achieves state-of-the-art performance on both scene text recognition and scene text spotting benchmarks, which consistently demonstrates the superiority of our method in various environments especially on low-quality images. Besides, extensive experiments including in English and Chinese also prove that, a text spotter that incorporates our language modeling method can significantly improve its performance both in accuracy and speed compared with commonly used attention-based recognizers.
The attention-based encoder-decoder framework is becoming popular in scene text recognition, largely due to its superiority in integrating recognition clues from both visual and semantic domains. However, recent studies show the two clues might be misaligned in the difficult text (e.g., with rare text shapes) and introduce constraints such as character position to alleviate the problem. Despite certain success, a content-free positional embedding hardly associates with meaningful local image regions stably. In this paper, we propose a novel module called Multi-Domain Character Distance Perception (MDCDP) to establish a visual and semantic related position encoding. MDCDP uses positional embedding to query both visual and semantic features following the attention mechanism. It naturally encodes the positional clue, which describes both visual and semantic distances among characters. We develop a novel architecture named CDistNet that stacks MDCDP several times to guide precise distance modeling. Thus, the visual-semantic alignment is well built even various difficulties presented. We apply CDistNet to two augmented datasets and six public benchmarks. The experiments demonstrate that CDistNet achieves state-of-the-art recognition accuracy. While the visualization also shows that CDistNet achieves proper attention localization in both visual and semantic domains. We will release our code upon acceptance.
In this paper, we abandon the dominant complex language model and rethink the linguistic learning process in the scene text recognition. Different from previous methods considering the visual and linguistic information in two separate structures, we propose a Visual Language Modeling Network (VisionLAN), which views the visual and linguistic information as a union by directly enduing the vision model with language capability. Specially, we introduce the text recognition of character-wise occluded feature maps in the training stage. Such operation guides the vision model to use not only the visual texture of characters, but also the linguistic information in visual context for recognition when the visual cues are confused (e.g. occlusion, noise, etc.). As the linguistic information is acquired along with visual features without the need of extra language model, VisionLAN significantly improves the speed by 39% and adaptively considers the linguistic information to enhance the visual features for accurate recognition. Furthermore, an Occlusion Scene Text (OST) dataset is proposed to evaluate the performance on the case of missing character-wise visual cues. The state of-the-art results on several benchmarks prove our effectiveness. Code and dataset are available at https://github.com/wangyuxin87/VisionLAN.
Existing scene text removal methods mainly train an elaborate network with paired images to realize the function of text localization and background reconstruction simultaneously, but there exists two problems: 1) lacking the exhaustive erasure of text region and 2) causing the excessive erasure to text-free areas. To handle these issues, this paper provides a novel ProgrEssively Region-based scene Text eraser (PERT), which introduces region-based modification strategy to progressively erase the pixels in only text region. Firstly, PERT decomposes the STR task to several erasing stages. As each stage aims to take a further step toward the text-removed image rather than directly regress to the final result, the decomposed operation reduces the learning difficulty in each stage, and an exhaustive erasure result can be obtained by iterating over lightweight erasing blocks with shared parameters. Then, PERT introduces a region-based modification strategy to ensure the integrity of text-free areas by decoupling text localization from erasure process to guide the removal. Benefiting from the simplicity architecture, PERT is a simple and strong baseline, and is easy to be followed and developed. Extensive experiments demonstrate that PERT obtains the state-of-the-art results on both synthetic and real-world datasets. Code is available athttps://github.com/wangyuxin87/PERT.
Linguistic knowledge is of great benefit to scene text recognition. However, how to effectively model linguistic rules in end-to-end deep networks remains a research challenge. In this paper, we argue that the limited capacity of language models comes from: 1) implicitly language modeling; 2) unidirectional feature representation; and 3) language model with noise input. Correspondingly, we propose an autonomous, bidirectional and iterative ABINet for scene text recognition. Firstly, the autonomous suggests to block gradient flow between vision and language models to enforce explicitly language modeling. Secondly, a novel bidirectional cloze network (BCN) as the language model is proposed based on bidirectional feature representation. Thirdly, we propose an execution manner of iterative correction for language model which can effectively alleviate the impact of noise input. Additionally, based on the ensemble of iterative predictions, we propose a self-training method which can learn from unlabeled images effectively. Extensive experiments indicate that ABINet has superiority on low-quality images and achieves state-of-the-art results on several mainstream benchmarks. Besides, the ABINet trained with ensemble self-training shows promising improvement in realizing human-level recognition. Code is available at https://github.com/FangShancheng/ABINet.