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Benjamin D. Kim, Vipindev Adat Vasudevan, Jongchan Woo, Alejandro Cohen, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Thomas Stahlbuhk, Muriel Médard

The use of Mutual Information (MI) as a measure to evaluate the efficiency of cryptosystems has an extensive history. However, estimating MI between unknown random variables in a high-dimensional space is challenging. Recent advances in machine learning have enabled progress in estimating MI using neural networks. This work presents a novel application of MI estimation in the field of cryptography. We propose applying this methodology directly to estimate the MI between plaintext and ciphertext in a chosen plaintext attack. The leaked information, if any, from the encryption could potentially be exploited by adversaries to compromise the computational security of the cryptosystem. We evaluate the efficiency of our approach by empirically analyzing multiple encryption schemes and baseline approaches. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to novel network coding-based cryptosystems that provide individual secrecy and study the relationship between information leakage and input distribution.

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Yuzhou Gu, Ziqi Zhou, Onur Günlü, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Parastoo Sadeghi, Muriel Médard, Rafael F. Schaefer

We study a new framework for designing differentially private (DP) mechanisms via randomized graph colorings, called rainbow differential privacy. In this framework, datasets are nodes in a graph, and two neighboring datasets are connected by an edge. Each dataset in the graph has a preferential ordering for the possible outputs of the mechanism, and these orderings are called rainbows. Different rainbows partition the graph of connected datasets into different regions. We show that if a DP mechanism at the boundary of such regions is fixed and it behaves identically for all same-rainbow boundary datasets, then a unique optimal $(\epsilon,\delta)$-DP mechanism exists (as long as the boundary condition is valid) and can be expressed in closed-form. Our proof technique is based on an interesting relationship between dominance ordering and DP, which applies to any finite number of colors and for $(\epsilon,\delta)$-DP, improving upon previous results that only apply to at most three colors and for $\epsilon$-DP. We justify the homogeneous boundary condition assumption by giving an example with non-homogeneous boundary condition, for which there exists no optimal DP mechanism.

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Homa Esfahanizadeh, Adam Yala, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Andrea J. D. Jaba, Victor Quach, Ken R. Duffy, Tommi S. Jaakkola, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Manya Ghobadi, Regina Barzilay, Muriel Médard

Allowing organizations to share their data for training of machine learning (ML) models without unintended information leakage is an open problem in practice. A promising technique for this still-open problem is to train models on the encoded data. Our approach, called Privately Encoded Open Datasets with Public Labels (PEOPL), uses a certain class of randomly constructed transforms to encode sensitive data. Organizations publish their randomly encoded data and associated raw labels for ML training, where training is done without knowledge of the encoding realization. We investigate several important aspects of this problem: We introduce information-theoretic scores for privacy and utility, which quantify the average performance of an unfaithful user (e.g., adversary) and a faithful user (e.g., model developer) that have access to the published encoded data. We then theoretically characterize primitives in building families of encoding schemes that motivate the use of random deep neural networks. Empirically, we compare the performance of our randomized encoding scheme and a linear scheme to a suite of computational attacks, and we also show that our scheme achieves competitive prediction accuracy to raw-sample baselines. Moreover, we demonstrate that multiple institutions, using independent random encoders, can collaborate to train improved ML models.

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We extend a previous framework for designing differentially private (DP) mechanisms via randomized graph colorings that was restricted to binary functions, corresponding to colorings in a graph, to multi-valued functions. As before, datasets are nodes in the graph and any two neighboring datasets are connected by an edge. In our setting, we assume each dataset has a preferential ordering for the possible outputs of the mechanism, which we refer to as a rainbow. Different rainbows partition the graph of datasets into different regions. We show that when the DP mechanism is pre-specified at the boundary of such regions, at most one optimal mechanism can exist. Moreover, if the mechanism is to behave identically for all same-rainbow boundary datasets, the problem can be greatly simplified and solved by means of a morphism to a line graph. We then show closed form expressions for the line graph in the case of ternary functions. Treatment of ternary queries in this paper displays enough richness to be extended to higher-dimensional query spaces with preferential query ordering, but the optimality proof does not seem to follow directly from the ternary proof.

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Adam Yala, Victor Quach, Homa Esfahanizadeh, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Ken R. Duffy, Muriel Médard, Tommi S. Jaakkola, Regina Barzilay

Balancing privacy and predictive utility remains a central challenge for machine learning in healthcare. In this paper, we develop Syfer, a neural obfuscation method to protect against re-identification attacks. Syfer composes trained layers with random neural networks to encode the original data (e.g. X-rays) while maintaining the ability to predict diagnoses from the encoded data. The randomness in the encoder acts as the private key for the data owner. We quantify privacy as the number of attacker guesses required to re-identify a single image (guesswork). We propose a contrastive learning algorithm to estimate guesswork. We show empirically that differentially private methods, such as DP-Image, obtain privacy at a significant loss of utility. In contrast, Syfer achieves strong privacy while preserving utility. For example, X-ray classifiers built with DP-image, Syfer, and original data achieve average AUCs of 0.53, 0.78, and 0.86, respectively.

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Peter Kairouz, H. Brendan McMahan, Brendan Avent, Aurélien Bellet, Mehdi Bennis, Arjun Nitin Bhagoji, Keith Bonawitz, Zachary Charles, Graham Cormode, Rachel Cummings, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Salim El Rouayheb, David Evans, Josh Gardner, Zachary Garrett, Adrià Gascón, Badih Ghazi, Phillip B. Gibbons, Marco Gruteser, Zaid Harchaoui, Chaoyang He, Lie He, Zhouyuan Huo, Ben Hutchinson, Justin Hsu, Martin Jaggi, Tara Javidi, Gauri Joshi, Mikhail Khodak, Jakub Konečný, Aleksandra Korolova, Farinaz Koushanfar, Sanmi Koyejo, Tancrède Lepoint, Yang Liu, Prateek Mittal, Mehryar Mohri, Richard Nock, Ayfer Özgür, Rasmus Pagh, Mariana Raykova, Hang Qi, Daniel Ramage, Ramesh Raskar, Dawn Song, Weikang Song, Sebastian U. Stich, Ziteng Sun, Ananda Theertha Suresh, Florian Tramèr, Praneeth Vepakomma, Jianyu Wang, Li Xiong, Zheng Xu, Qiang Yang, Felix X. Yu, Han Yu, Sen Zhao

Federated learning (FL) is a machine learning setting where many clients (e.g. mobile devices or whole organizations) collaboratively train a model under the orchestration of a central server (e.g. service provider), while keeping the training data decentralized. FL embodies the principles of focused data collection and minimization, and can mitigate many of the systemic privacy risks and costs resulting from traditional, centralized machine learning and data science approaches. Motivated by the explosive growth in FL research, this paper discusses recent advances and presents an extensive collection of open problems and challenges.

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