Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Authors:Benjamin D. Kim, Vipindev Adat Vasudevan, Jongchan Woo, Alejandro Cohen, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Thomas Stahlbuhk, Muriel Médard

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The use of Mutual Information (MI) as a measure to evaluate the efficiency of cryptosystems has an extensive history. However, estimating MI between unknown random variables in a high-dimensional space is challenging. Recent advances in machine learning have enabled progress in estimating MI using neural networks. This work presents a novel application of MI estimation in the field of cryptography. We propose applying this methodology directly to estimate the MI between plaintext and ciphertext in a chosen plaintext attack. The leaked information, if any, from the encryption could potentially be exploited by adversaries to compromise the computational security of the cryptosystem. We evaluate the efficiency of our approach by empirically analyzing multiple encryption schemes and baseline approaches. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to novel network coding-based cryptosystems that provide individual secrecy and study the relationship between information leakage and input distribution.

Via

Authors:Yuzhou Gu, Ziqi Zhou, Onur Günlü, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Parastoo Sadeghi, Muriel Médard, Rafael F. Schaefer

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We study a new framework for designing differentially private (DP) mechanisms via randomized graph colorings, called rainbow differential privacy. In this framework, datasets are nodes in a graph, and two neighboring datasets are connected by an edge. Each dataset in the graph has a preferential ordering for the possible outputs of the mechanism, and these orderings are called rainbows. Different rainbows partition the graph of connected datasets into different regions. We show that if a DP mechanism at the boundary of such regions is fixed and it behaves identically for all same-rainbow boundary datasets, then a unique optimal $(\epsilon,\delta)$-DP mechanism exists (as long as the boundary condition is valid) and can be expressed in closed-form. Our proof technique is based on an interesting relationship between dominance ordering and DP, which applies to any finite number of colors and for $(\epsilon,\delta)$-DP, improving upon previous results that only apply to at most three colors and for $\epsilon$-DP. We justify the homogeneous boundary condition assumption by giving an example with non-homogeneous boundary condition, for which there exists no optimal DP mechanism.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We propose to use a liquid time constant (LTC) network to predict the future blockage status of a millimeter wave (mmWave) link using only the received signal power as the input to the system. The LTC network is based on an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system inspired by biology and specialized for near-future prediction for time sequence observation as the input. Using an experimental dataset at 60 GHz, we show that our proposed use of LTC can reliably predict the occurrence of blockage and the length of the blockage without the need for scenario-specific data. The results show that the proposed LTC can predict with upwards of 97.85\% accuracy without prior knowledge of the outdoor scenario or retraining/tuning. These results highlight the promising gains of using LTC networks to predict time series-dependent signals, which can lead to more reliable and low-latency communication.

Via

Authors:Homa Esfahanizadeh, Adam Yala, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Andrea J. D. Jaba, Victor Quach, Ken R. Duffy, Tommi S. Jaakkola, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Manya Ghobadi, Regina Barzilay(+1 more)

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Allowing organizations to share their data for training of machine learning (ML) models without unintended information leakage is an open problem in practice. A promising technique for this still-open problem is to train models on the encoded data. Our approach, called Privately Encoded Open Datasets with Public Labels (PEOPL), uses a certain class of randomly constructed transforms to encode sensitive data. Organizations publish their randomly encoded data and associated raw labels for ML training, where training is done without knowledge of the encoding realization. We investigate several important aspects of this problem: We introduce information-theoretic scores for privacy and utility, which quantify the average performance of an unfaithful user (e.g., adversary) and a faithful user (e.g., model developer) that have access to the published encoded data. We then theoretically characterize primitives in building families of encoding schemes that motivate the use of random deep neural networks. Empirically, we compare the performance of our randomized encoding scheme and a linear scheme to a suite of computational attacks, and we also show that our scheme achieves competitive prediction accuracy to raw-sample baselines. Moreover, we demonstrate that multiple institutions, using independent random encoders, can collaborate to train improved ML models.

Via

Authors:Ziqi Zhou, Onur Günlü, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Muriel Médard, Parastoo Sadeghi, Rafael F. Schaefer

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We extend a previous framework for designing differentially private (DP) mechanisms via randomized graph colorings that was restricted to binary functions, corresponding to colorings in a graph, to multi-valued functions. As before, datasets are nodes in the graph and any two neighboring datasets are connected by an edge. In our setting, we assume each dataset has a preferential ordering for the possible outputs of the mechanism, which we refer to as a rainbow. Different rainbows partition the graph of datasets into different regions. We show that when the DP mechanism is pre-specified at the boundary of such regions, at most one optimal mechanism can exist. Moreover, if the mechanism is to behave identically for all same-rainbow boundary datasets, the problem can be greatly simplified and solved by means of a morphism to a line graph. We then show closed form expressions for the line graph in the case of ternary functions. Treatment of ternary queries in this paper displays enough richness to be extended to higher-dimensional query spaces with preferential query ordering, but the optimality proof does not seem to follow directly from the ternary proof.

Via

Authors:Adam Yala, Victor Quach, Homa Esfahanizadeh, Rafael G. L. D'Oliveira, Ken R. Duffy, Muriel Médard, Tommi S. Jaakkola, Regina Barzilay

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Balancing privacy and predictive utility remains a central challenge for machine learning in healthcare. In this paper, we develop Syfer, a neural obfuscation method to protect against re-identification attacks. Syfer composes trained layers with random neural networks to encode the original data (e.g. X-rays) while maintaining the ability to predict diagnoses from the encoded data. The randomness in the encoder acts as the private key for the data owner. We quantify privacy as the number of attacker guesses required to re-identify a single image (guesswork). We propose a contrastive learning algorithm to estimate guesswork. We show empirically that differentially private methods, such as DP-Image, obtain privacy at a significant loss of utility. In contrast, Syfer achieves strong privacy while preserving utility. For example, X-ray classifiers built with DP-image, Syfer, and original data achieve average AUCs of 0.53, 0.78, and 0.86, respectively.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Overlapping clusters are common in models of many practical data-segmentation applications. Suppose we are given $n$ elements to be clustered into $k$ possibly overlapping clusters, and an oracle that can interactively answer queries of the form "do elements $u$ and $v$ belong to the same cluster?" The goal is to recover the clusters with minimum number of such queries. This problem has been of recent interest for the case of disjoint clusters. In this paper, we look at the more practical scenario of overlapping clusters, and provide upper bounds (with algorithms) on the sufficient number of queries. We provide algorithmic results under both arbitrary (worst-case) and statistical modeling assumptions. Our algorithms are parameter free, efficient, and work in the presence of random noise. We also derive information-theoretic lower bounds on the number of queries needed, proving that our algorithms are order optimal. Finally, we test our algorithms over both synthetic and real-world data, showing their practicality and effectiveness.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We study the central problem in data privacy: how to share data with an analyst while providing both privacy and utility guarantees to the user that owns the data. In this setting, we present an estimation-theoretic analysis of the privacy-utility trade-off (PUT). Here, an analyst is allowed to reconstruct (in a mean-squared error sense) certain functions of the data (utility), while other private functions should not be reconstructed with distortion below a certain threshold (privacy). We demonstrate how $\chi^2$-information captures the fundamental PUT in this case and provide bounds for the best PUT. We propose a convex program to compute privacy-assuring mappings when the functions to be disclosed and hidden are known a priori and the data distribution is known. We derive lower bounds on the minimum mean-squared error of estimating a target function from the disclosed data and evaluate the robustness of our approach when an empirical distribution is used to compute the privacy-assuring mappings instead of the true data distribution. We illustrate the proposed approach through two numerical experiments.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:A latent space model for a family of random graphs assigns real-valued vectors to nodes of the graph such that edge probabilities are determined by latent positions. Latent space models provide a natural statistical framework for graph visualizing and clustering. A latent space model of particular interest is the Random Dot Product Graph (RDPG), which can be fit using an efficient spectral method; however, this method is based on a heuristic that can fail, even in simple cases. Here, we consider a closely related latent space model, the Logistic RDPG, which uses a logistic link function to map from latent positions to edge likelihoods. Over this model, we show that asymptotically exact maximum likelihood inference of latent position vectors can be achieved using an efficient spectral method. Our method involves computing top eigenvectors of a normalized adjacency matrix and scaling eigenvectors using a regression step. The novel regression scaling step is an essential part of the proposed method. In simulations, we show that our proposed method is more accurate and more robust than common practices. We also show the effectiveness of our approach over standard real networks of the karate club and political blogs.

Via