Visually-aware recommender systems have found widespread application in domains where visual elements significantly contribute to the inference of users' potential preferences. While the incorporation of visual information holds the promise of enhancing recommendation accuracy and alleviating the cold-start problem, it is essential to point out that the inclusion of item images may introduce substantial security challenges. Some existing works have shown that the item provider can manipulate item exposure rates to its advantage by constructing adversarial images. However, these works cannot reveal the real vulnerability of visually-aware recommender systems because (1) The generated adversarial images are markedly distorted, rendering them easily detectable by human observers; (2) The effectiveness of the attacks is inconsistent and even ineffective in some scenarios. To shed light on the real vulnerabilities of visually-aware recommender systems when confronted with adversarial images, this paper introduces a novel attack method, IPDGI (Item Promotion by Diffusion Generated Image). Specifically, IPDGI employs a guided diffusion model to generate adversarial samples designed to deceive visually-aware recommender systems. Taking advantage of accurately modeling benign images' distribution by diffusion models, the generated adversarial images have high fidelity with original images, ensuring the stealth of our IPDGI. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods, we conduct extensive experiments on two commonly used e-commerce recommendation datasets (Amazon Beauty and Amazon Baby) with several typical visually-aware recommender systems. The experimental results show that our attack method has a significant improvement in both the performance of promoting the long-tailed (i.e., unpopular) items and the quality of generated adversarial images.
With the growing concerns regarding user data privacy, Federated Recommender System (FedRec) has garnered significant attention recently due to its privacy-preserving capabilities. Existing FedRecs generally adhere to a learning protocol in which a central server shares a global recommendation model with clients, and participants achieve collaborative learning by frequently communicating the model's public parameters. Nevertheless, this learning framework has two drawbacks that limit its practical usability: (1) It necessitates a global-sharing recommendation model; however, in real-world scenarios, information related to the recommender model, including its algorithm and parameters, constitutes the platforms' intellectual property. Hence, service providers are unlikely to release such information actively. (2) The communication costs of model parameter transmission are expensive since the model parameters are usually high-dimensional matrices. With the model size increasing, the communication burden will be the bottleneck for such traditional FedRecs. Given the above limitations, this paper introduces a novel parameter transmission-free federated recommendation framework that balances the protection between users' data privacy and platforms' model privacy, namely PTF-FedRec. Specifically, participants in PTF-FedRec collaboratively exchange knowledge by sharing their predictions within a privacy-preserving mechanism. Through this way, the central server can learn a recommender model without disclosing its model parameters or accessing clients' raw data, preserving both the server's model privacy and users' data privacy. Besides, since clients and the central server only need to communicate prediction scores which are just a few real numbers, the overhead is significantly reduced compared to traditional FedRecs.
At the heart of contemporary recommender systems (RSs) are latent factor models that provide quality recommendation experience to users. These models use embedding vectors, which are typically of a uniform and fixed size, to represent users and items. As the number of users and items continues to grow, this design becomes inefficient and hard to scale. Recent lightweight embedding methods have enabled different users and items to have diverse embedding sizes, but are commonly subject to two major drawbacks. Firstly, they limit the embedding size search to optimizing a heuristic balancing the recommendation quality and the memory complexity, where the trade-off coefficient needs to be manually tuned for every memory budget requested. The implicitly enforced memory complexity term can even fail to cap the parameter usage, making the resultant embedding table fail to meet the memory budget strictly. Secondly, most solutions, especially reinforcement learning based ones derive and optimize the embedding size for each each user/item on an instance-by-instance basis, which impedes the search efficiency. In this paper, we propose Budgeted Embedding Table (BET), a novel method that generates table-level actions (i.e., embedding sizes for all users and items) that is guaranteed to meet pre-specified memory budgets. Furthermore, by leveraging a set-based action formulation and engaging set representation learning, we present an innovative action search strategy powered by an action fitness predictor that efficiently evaluates each table-level action. Experiments have shown state-of-the-art performance on two real-world datasets when BET is paired with three popular recommender models under different memory budgets.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) have exhibited exceptional efficacy in a diverse array of applications. However, the sheer size of large-scale graphs presents a significant challenge to real-time inference with GNNs. Although existing Scalable GNNs leverage linear propagation to preprocess the features and accelerate the training and inference procedure, these methods still suffer from scalability issues when making inferences on unseen nodes, as the feature preprocessing requires the graph to be known and fixed. To further accelerate Scalable GNNs inference in this inductive setting, we propose an online propagation framework and two novel node-adaptive propagation methods that can customize the optimal propagation depth for each node based on its topological information and thereby avoid redundant feature propagation. The trade-off between accuracy and latency can be flexibly managed through simple hyper-parameters to accommodate various latency constraints. Moreover, to compensate for the inference accuracy loss caused by the potential early termination of propagation, we further propose Inception Distillation to exploit the multi-scale receptive field information within graphs. The rigorous and comprehensive experimental study on public datasets with varying scales and characteristics demonstrates that the proposed inference acceleration framework outperforms existing state-of-the-art graph inference acceleration methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Particularly, the superiority of our approach is notable on datasets with larger scales, yielding a 75x inference speedup on the largest Ogbn-products dataset.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2211.00495
Latent factor models are the dominant backbones of contemporary recommender systems (RSs) given their performance advantages, where a unique vector embedding with a fixed dimensionality (e.g., 128) is required to represent each entity (commonly a user/item). Due to the large number of users and items on e-commerce sites, the embedding table is arguably the least memory-efficient component of RSs. For any lightweight recommender that aims to efficiently scale with the growing size of users/items or to remain applicable in resource-constrained settings, existing solutions either reduce the number of embeddings needed via hashing, or sparsify the full embedding table to switch off selected embedding dimensions. However, as hash collision arises or embeddings become overly sparse, especially when adapting to a tighter memory budget, those lightweight recommenders inevitably have to compromise their accuracy. To this end, we propose a novel compact embedding framework for RSs, namely Compositional Embedding with Regularized Pruning (CERP). Specifically, CERP represents each entity by combining a pair of embeddings from two independent, substantially smaller meta-embedding tables, which are then jointly pruned via a learnable element-wise threshold. In addition, we innovatively design a regularized pruning mechanism in CERP, such that the two sparsified meta-embedding tables are encouraged to encode information that is mutually complementary. Given the compatibility with agnostic latent factor models, we pair CERP with two popular recommendation models for extensive experiments, where results on two real-world datasets under different memory budgets demonstrate its superiority against state-of-the-art baselines. The codebase of CERP is available in https://github.com/xurong-liang/CERP.
As some recent information security legislation endowed users with unconditional rights to be forgotten by any trained machine learning model, personalized IoT service providers have to put unlearning functionality into their consideration. The most straightforward method to unlearn users' contribution is to retrain the model from the initial state, which is not realistic in high throughput applications with frequent unlearning requests. Though some machine unlearning frameworks have been proposed to speed up the retraining process, they fail to match decentralized learning scenarios. In this paper, we design a decentralized unlearning framework called HDUS, which uses distilled seed models to construct erasable ensembles for all clients. Moreover, the framework is compatible with heterogeneous on-device models, representing stronger scalability in real-world applications. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets show that our HDUS achieves state-of-the-art performance.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) encounter significant computational challenges when handling large-scale graphs, which severely restricts their efficacy across diverse applications. To address this limitation, graph condensation has emerged as a promising technique, which constructs a small synthetic graph for efficiently training GNNs while retaining performance. However, due to the topology structure among nodes, graph condensation is limited to condensing only the observed training nodes and their corresponding structure, thus lacking the ability to effectively handle the unseen data. Consequently, the original large graph is still required in the inference stage to perform message passing to inductive nodes, resulting in substantial computational demands. To overcome this issue, we propose mapping-aware graph condensation (MCond), explicitly learning the one-to-many node mapping from original nodes to synthetic nodes to seamlessly integrate new nodes into the synthetic graph for inductive representation learning. This enables direct information propagation on the synthetic graph, which is much more efficient than on the original large graph. Specifically, MCond employs an alternating optimization scheme with innovative loss terms from transductive and inductive perspectives, facilitating the mutual promotion between graph condensation and node mapping learning. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in inductive inference. On the Reddit dataset, MCond achieves up to 121.5x inference speedup and 55.9x reduction in storage requirements compared with counterparts based on the original graph.
Few-shot inductive link prediction on knowledge graphs (KGs) aims to predict missing links for unseen entities with few-shot links observed. Previous methods are limited to transductive scenarios, where entities exist in the knowledge graphs, so they are unable to handle unseen entities. Therefore, recent inductive methods utilize the sub-graphs around unseen entities to obtain the semantics and predict links inductively. However, in the few-shot setting, the sub-graphs are often sparse and cannot provide meaningful inductive patterns. In this paper, we propose a novel relational anonymous walk-guided neural process for few-shot inductive link prediction on knowledge graphs, denoted as RawNP. Specifically, we develop a neural process-based method to model a flexible distribution over link prediction functions. This enables the model to quickly adapt to new entities and estimate the uncertainty when making predictions. To capture general inductive patterns, we present a relational anonymous walk to extract a series of relational motifs from few-shot observations. These motifs reveal the distinctive semantic patterns on KGs that support inductive predictions. Extensive experiments on typical benchmark datasets demonstrate that our model derives new state-of-the-art performance.