Federated learning (FL) was originally regarded as a framework for collaborative learning among clients with data privacy protection through a coordinating server. In this paper, we propose a new active membership inference (AMI) attack carried out by a dishonest server in FL. In AMI attacks, the server crafts and embeds malicious parameters into global models to effectively infer whether a target data sample is included in a client's private training data or not. By exploiting the correlation among data features through a non-linear decision boundary, AMI attacks with a certified guarantee of success can achieve severely high success rates under rigorous local differential privacy (LDP) protection; thereby exposing clients' training data to significant privacy risk. Theoretical and experimental results on several benchmark datasets show that adding sufficient privacy-preserving noise to prevent our attack would significantly damage FL's model utility.
Recent development in the field of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) has helped improve trust in Machine-Learning-as-a-Service (MLaaS) systems, in which an explanation is provided together with the model prediction in response to each query. However, XAI also opens a door for adversaries to gain insights into the black-box models in MLaaS, thereby making the models more vulnerable to several attacks. For example, feature-based explanations (e.g., SHAP) could expose the top important features that a black-box model focuses on. Such disclosure has been exploited to craft effective backdoor triggers against malware classifiers. To address this trade-off, we introduce a new concept of achieving local differential privacy (LDP) in the explanations, and from that we establish a defense, called XRand, against such attacks. We show that our mechanism restricts the information that the adversary can learn about the top important features, while maintaining the faithfulness of the explanations.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) are susceptible to privacy inference attacks (PIAs), given their ability to learn joint representation from features and edges among nodes in graph data. To prevent privacy leakages in GNNs, we propose a novel heterogeneous randomized response (HeteroRR) mechanism to protect nodes' features and edges against PIAs under differential privacy (DP) guarantees without an undue cost of data and model utility in training GNNs. Our idea is to balance the importance and sensitivity of nodes' features and edges in redistributing the privacy budgets since some features and edges are more sensitive or important to the model utility than others. As a result, we derive significantly better randomization probabilities and tighter error bounds at both levels of nodes' features and edges departing from existing approaches, thus enabling us to maintain high data utility for training GNNs. An extensive theoretical and empirical analysis using benchmark datasets shows that HeteroRR significantly outperforms various baselines in terms of model utility under rigorous privacy protection for both nodes' features and edges. That enables us to defend PIAs in DP-preserving GNNs effectively.
In this paper, we introduce a novel concept of user-entity differential privacy (UeDP) to provide formal privacy protection simultaneously to both sensitive entities in textual data and data owners in learning natural language models (NLMs). To preserve UeDP, we developed a novel algorithm, called UeDP-Alg, optimizing the trade-off between privacy loss and model utility with a tight sensitivity bound derived from seamlessly combining user and sensitive entity sampling processes. An extensive theoretical analysis and evaluation show that our UeDP-Alg outperforms baseline approaches in model utility under the same privacy budget consumption on several NLM tasks, using benchmark datasets.
In this paper, we show that the process of continually learning new tasks and memorizing previous tasks introduces unknown privacy risks and challenges to bound the privacy loss. Based upon this, we introduce a formal definition of Lifelong DP, in which the participation of any data tuples in the training set of any tasks is protected, under a consistently bounded DP protection, given a growing stream of tasks. A consistently bounded DP means having only one fixed value of the DP privacy budget, regardless of the number of tasks. To preserve Lifelong DP, we propose a scalable and heterogeneous algorithm, called L2DP-ML with a streaming batch training, to efficiently train and continue releasing new versions of an L2M model, given the heterogeneity in terms of data sizes and the training order of tasks, without affecting DP protection of the private training set. An end-to-end theoretical analysis and thorough evaluations show that our mechanism is significantly better than baseline approaches in preserving Lifelong DP. The implementation of L2DP-ML is available at: https://github.com/haiphanNJIT/PrivateDeepLearning.
This paper explores previously unknown backdoor risks in HyperNet-based personalized federated learning (HyperNetFL) through poisoning attacks. Based upon that, we propose a novel model transferring attack (called HNTROJ), i.e., the first of its kind, to transfer a local backdoor infected model to all legitimate and personalized local models, which are generated by the HyperNetFL model, through consistent and effective malicious local gradients computed across all compromised clients in the whole training process. As a result, HNTROJ reduces the number of compromised clients needed to successfully launch the attack without any observable signs of sudden shifts or degradation regarding model utility on legitimate data samples making our attack stealthy. To defend against HNTROJ, we adapted several backdoor-resistant FL training algorithms into HyperNetFL. An extensive experiment that is carried out using several benchmark datasets shows that HNTROJ significantly outperforms data poisoning and model replacement attacks and bypasses robust training algorithms.
In this paper, we focus on preserving differential privacy (DP) in continual learning (CL), in which we train ML models to learn a sequence of new tasks while memorizing previous tasks. We first introduce a notion of continual adjacent databases to bound the sensitivity of any data record participating in the training process of CL. Based upon that, we develop a new DP-preserving algorithm for CL with a data sampling strategy to quantify the privacy risk of training data in the well-known Averaged Gradient Episodic Memory (A-GEM) approach by applying a moments accountant. Our algorithm provides formal guarantees of privacy for data records across tasks in CL. Preliminary theoretical analysis and evaluations show that our mechanism tightens the privacy loss while maintaining a promising model utility.
In this paper, we introduce a novel interpreting framework that learns an interpretable model based on an ontology-based sampling technique to explain agnostic prediction models. Different from existing approaches, our algorithm considers contextual correlation among words, described in domain knowledge ontologies, to generate semantic explanations. To narrow down the search space for explanations, which is a major problem of long and complicated text data, we design a learnable anchor algorithm, to better extract explanations locally. A set of regulations is further introduced, regarding combining learned interpretable representations with anchors to generate comprehensible semantic explanations. An extensive experiment conducted on two real-world datasets shows that our approach generates more precise and insightful explanations compared with baseline approaches.