Heterogeneous treatment effect estimation is an important problem in precision medicine. Specific interests lie in identifying the differential effect of different treatments based on some external covariates. We propose a novel non-parametric treatment effect estimation method in a multi-treatment setting. Our non-parametric modeling of the response curves relies on radial basis function (RBF)-nets with shared hidden neurons. Our model thus facilitates modeling commonality among the treatment outcomes. The estimation and inference schemes are developed under a Bayesian framework and implemented via an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, appropriately accommodating uncertainty in all aspects of the analysis. The numerical performance of the method is demonstrated through simulation experiments. Applying our proposed method to MIMIC data, we obtain several interesting findings related to the impact of different treatment strategies on the length of ICU stay and 12-hour SOFA score for sepsis patients who are home-discharged.
* 22 pages (not including references), with 4 pages of appendices 8
tables and 1 figure in the main paper, 2 tables and 2 figures in the
This is the first survey of the active area of AI research that focuses on privacy issues in Large Language Models (LLMs). Specifically, we focus on work that red-teams models to highlight privacy risks, attempts to build privacy into the training or inference process, enables efficient data deletion from trained models to comply with existing privacy regulations, and tries to mitigate copyright issues. Our focus is on summarizing technical research that develops algorithms, proves theorems, and runs empirical evaluations. While there is an extensive body of legal and policy work addressing these challenges from a different angle, that is not the focus of our survey. Nevertheless, these works, along with recent legal developments do inform how these technical problems are formalized, and so we discuss them briefly in Section 1. While we have made our best effort to include all the relevant work, due to the fast moving nature of this research we may have missed some recent work. If we have missed some of your work please contact us, as we will attempt to keep this survey relatively up to date. We are maintaining a repository with the list of papers covered in this survey and any relevant code that was publicly available at https://github.com/safr-ml-lab/survey-llm.
We propose an efficient online approximate Bayesian inference algorithm for estimating the parameters of a nonlinear function from a potentially non-stationary data stream. The method is based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF), but uses a novel low-rank plus diagonal decomposition of the posterior precision matrix, which gives a cost per step which is linear in the number of model parameters. In contrast to methods based on stochastic variational inference, our method is fully deterministic, and does not require step-size tuning. We show experimentally that this results in much faster (more sample efficient) learning, which results in more rapid adaptation to changing distributions, and faster accumulation of reward when used as part of a contextual bandit algorithm.
Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.