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Abstract:When solving inverse problems, it is increasingly popular to use pre-trained diffusion models as plug-and-play priors. This framework can accommodate different forward models without re-training while preserving the generative capability of diffusion models. Despite their success in many imaging inverse problems, most existing methods rely on privileged information such as derivative, pseudo-inverse, or full knowledge about the forward model. This reliance poses a substantial limitation that restricts their use in a wide range of problems where such information is unavailable, such as in many scientific applications. To address this issue, we propose Ensemble Kalman Diffusion Guidance (EnKG) for diffusion models, a derivative-free approach that can solve inverse problems by only accessing forward model evaluations and a pre-trained diffusion model prior. We study the empirical effectiveness of our method across various inverse problems, including scientific settings such as inferring fluid flows and astronomical objects, which are highly non-linear inverse problems that often only permit black-box access to the forward model.

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Abstract:Memory complexity and data scarcity have so far prohibited learning solution operators of partial differential equations (PDEs) at high resolutions. We address these limitations by introducing a new data efficient and highly parallelizable operator learning approach with reduced memory requirement and better generalization, called multi-grid tensorized neural operator (MG-TFNO). MG-TFNO scales to large resolutions by leveraging local and global structures of full-scale, real-world phenomena, through a decomposition of both the input domain and the operator's parameter space. Our contributions are threefold: i) we enable parallelization over input samples with a novel multi-grid-based domain decomposition, ii) we represent the parameters of the model in a high-order latent subspace of the Fourier domain, through a global tensor factorization, resulting in an extreme reduction in the number of parameters and improved generalization, and iii) we propose architectural improvements to the backbone FNO. Our approach can be used in any operator learning setting. We demonstrate superior performance on the turbulent Navier-Stokes equations where we achieve less than half the error with over 150x compression. The tensorization combined with the domain decomposition, yields over 150x reduction in the number of parameters and 7x reduction in the domain size without losses in accuracy, while slightly enabling parallelism.

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Authors:Kamyar Azzizadenesheli, Nikola Kovachki, Zongyi Li, Miguel Liu-Schiaffini, Jean Kossaifi, Anima Anandkumar

Abstract:Scientific discovery and engineering design are currently limited by the time and cost of physical experiments, selected mostly through trial-and-error and intuition that require deep domain expertise. Numerical simulations present an alternative to physical experiments, but are usually infeasible for complex real-world domains due to the computational requirements of existing numerical methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) presents a potential paradigm shift through the development of fast data-driven surrogate models. In particular, an AI framework, known as neural operators, presents a principled framework for learning mappings between functions defined on continuous domains, e.g., spatiotemporal processes and partial differential equations (PDE). They can extrapolate and predict solutions at new locations unseen during training, i.e., perform zero-shot super-resolution. Neural operators can augment or even replace existing simulators in many applications, such as computational fluid dynamics, weather forecasting, and material modeling, while being 4-5 orders of magnitude faster. Further, neural operators can be integrated with physics and other domain constraints enforced at finer resolutions to obtain high-fidelity solutions and good generalization. Since neural operators are differentiable, they can directly optimize parameters for inverse design and other inverse problems. We believe that neural operators present a transformative approach to simulation and design, enabling rapid research and development.

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Authors:Miguel Liu-Schiaffini, Clare E. Singer, Nikola Kovachki, Tapio Schneider, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Anima Anandkumar

Abstract:Tipping points are abrupt, drastic, and often irreversible changes in the evolution of non-stationary and chaotic dynamical systems. For instance, increased greenhouse gas concentrations are predicted to lead to drastic decreases in low cloud cover, referred to as a climatological tipping point. In this paper, we learn the evolution of such non-stationary dynamical systems using a novel recurrent neural operator (RNO), which learns mappings between function spaces. After training RNO on only the pre-tipping dynamics, we employ it to detect future tipping points using an uncertainty-based approach. In particular, we propose a conformal prediction framework to forecast tipping points by monitoring deviations from physics constraints (such as conserved quantities and partial differential equations), enabling forecasting of these abrupt changes along with a rigorous measure of uncertainty. We illustrate our proposed methodology on non-stationary ordinary and partial differential equations, such as the Lorenz-63 and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations. We also apply our methods to forecast a climate tipping point in stratocumulus cloud cover. In our experiments, we demonstrate that even partial or approximate physics constraints can be used to accurately forecast future tipping points.

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Abstract:Multiscale partial differential equations (PDEs) arise in various applications, and several schemes have been developed to solve them efficiently. Homogenization theory is a powerful methodology that eliminates the small-scale dependence, resulting in simplified equations that are computationally tractable. In the field of continuum mechanics, homogenization is crucial for deriving constitutive laws that incorporate microscale physics in order to formulate balance laws for the macroscopic quantities of interest. However, obtaining homogenized constitutive laws is often challenging as they do not in general have an analytic form and can exhibit phenomena not present on the microscale. In response, data-driven learning of the constitutive law has been proposed as appropriate for this task. However, a major challenge in data-driven learning approaches for this problem has remained unexplored: the impact of discontinuities and corner interfaces in the underlying material. These discontinuities in the coefficients affect the smoothness of the solutions of the underlying equations. Given the prevalence of discontinuous materials in continuum mechanics applications, it is important to address the challenge of learning in this context; in particular to develop underpinning theory to establish the reliability of data-driven methods in this scientific domain. The paper addresses this unexplored challenge by investigating the learnability of homogenized constitutive laws for elliptic operators in the presence of such complexities. Approximation theory is presented, and numerical experiments are performed which validate the theory for the solution operator defined by the cell-problem arising in homogenization for elliptic PDEs.

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Authors:Zongyi Li, Hongkai Zheng, Nikola Kovachki, David Jin, Haoxuan Chen, Burigede Liu, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Anima Anandkumar

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Abstract:Machine learning methods have recently shown promise in solving partial differential equations (PDEs). They can be classified into two broad categories: approximating the solution function and learning the solution operator. The Physics-Informed Neural Network (PINN) is an example of the former while the Fourier neural operator (FNO) is an example of the latter. Both these approaches have shortcomings. The optimization in PINN is challenging and prone to failure, especially on multi-scale dynamic systems. FNO does not suffer from this optimization issue since it carries out supervised learning on a given dataset, but obtaining such data may be too expensive or infeasible. In this work, we propose the physics-informed neural operator (PINO), where we combine the operating-learning and function-optimization frameworks. This integrated approach improves convergence rates and accuracy over both PINN and FNO models. In the operator-learning phase, PINO learns the solution operator over multiple instances of the parametric PDE family. In the test-time optimization phase, PINO optimizes the pre-trained operator ansatz for the querying instance of the PDE. Experiments show PINO outperforms previous ML methods on many popular PDE families while retaining the extraordinary speed-up of FNO compared to solvers. In particular, PINO accurately solves challenging long temporal transient flows and Kolmogorov flows where other baseline ML methods fail to converge.

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Authors:Nikola Kovachki, Zongyi Li, Burigede Liu, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

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Abstract:The classical development of neural networks has primarily focused on learning mappings between finite dimensional Euclidean spaces or finite sets. We propose a generalization of neural networks tailored to learn operators mapping between infinite dimensional function spaces. We formulate the approximation of operators by composition of a class of linear integral operators and nonlinear activation functions, so that the composed operator can approximate complex nonlinear operators. We prove a universal approximation theorem for our construction. Furthermore, we introduce four classes of operator parameterizations: graph-based operators, low-rank operators, multipole graph-based operators, and Fourier operators and describe efficient algorithms for computing with each one. The proposed neural operators are resolution-invariant: they share the same network parameters between different discretizations of the underlying function spaces and can be used for zero-shot super-resolutions. Numerically, the proposed models show superior performance compared to existing machine learning based methodologies on Burgers' equation, Darcy flow, and the Navier-Stokes equation, while being several order of magnitude faster compared to conventional PDE solvers.

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Authors:Zongyi Li, Nikola Kovachki, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Burigede Liu, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

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Abstract:Chaotic systems are notoriously challenging to predict because of their instability. Small errors accumulate in the simulation of each time step, resulting in completely different trajectories. However, the trajectories of many prominent chaotic systems live in a low-dimensional subspace (attractor). If the system is Markovian, the attractor is uniquely determined by the Markov operator that maps the evolution of infinitesimal time steps. This makes it possible to predict the behavior of the chaotic system by learning the Markov operator even if we cannot predict the exact trajectory. Recently, a new framework for learning resolution-invariant solution operators for PDEs was proposed, known as neural operators. In this work, we train a Markov neural operator (MNO) with only the local one-step evolution information. We then compose the learned operator to obtain the global attractor and invariant measure. Such a Markov neural operator forms a discrete semigroup and we empirically observe that does not collapse or blow up. Experiments show neural operators are more accurate and stable compared to previous methods on chaotic systems such as the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky and Navier-Stokes equations.

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Authors:Zongyi Li, Nikola Kovachki, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Burigede Liu, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

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Abstract:The classical development of neural networks has primarily focused on learning mappings between finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. Recently, this has been generalized to neural operators that learn mappings between function spaces. For partial differential equations (PDEs), neural operators directly learn the mapping from any functional parametric dependence to the solution. Thus, they learn an entire family of PDEs, in contrast to classical methods which solve one instance of the equation. In this work, we formulate a new neural operator by parameterizing the integral kernel directly in Fourier space, allowing for an expressive and efficient architecture. We perform experiments on Burgers' equation, Darcy flow, and the Navier-Stokes equation (including the turbulent regime). Our Fourier neural operator shows state-of-the-art performance compared to existing neural network methodologies and it is up to three orders of magnitude faster compared to traditional PDE solvers.

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Authors:Zongyi Li, Nikola Kovachki, Kamyar Azizzadenesheli, Burigede Liu, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Andrew Stuart, Anima Anandkumar

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Abstract:One of the main challenges in using deep learning-based methods for simulating physical systems and solving partial differential equations (PDEs) is formulating physics-based data in the desired structure for neural networks. Graph neural networks (GNNs) have gained popularity in this area since graphs offer a natural way of modeling particle interactions and provide a clear way of discretizing the continuum models. However, the graphs constructed for approximating such tasks usually ignore long-range interactions due to unfavorable scaling of the computational complexity with respect to the number of nodes. The errors due to these approximations scale with the discretization of the system, thereby not allowing for generalization under mesh-refinement. Inspired by the classical multipole methods, we propose a novel multi-level graph neural network framework that captures interaction at all ranges with only linear complexity. Our multi-level formulation is equivalent to recursively adding inducing points to the kernel matrix, unifying GNNs with multi-resolution matrix factorization of the kernel. Experiments confirm our multi-graph network learns discretization-invariant solution operators to PDEs and can be evaluated in linear time.

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