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Mukul Gagrani, Corrado Rainone, Yang Yang, Harris Teague, Wonseok Jeon, Herke Van Hoof, Weiliang Will Zeng, Piero Zappi, Christopher Lott, Roberto Bondesan

Recent works on machine learning for combinatorial optimization have shown that learning based approaches can outperform heuristic methods in terms of speed and performance. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding an optimal topological order on a directed acyclic graph with focus on the memory minimization problem which arises in compilers. We propose an end-to-end machine learning based approach for topological ordering using an encoder-decoder framework. Our encoder is a novel attention based graph neural network architecture called \emph{Topoformer} which uses different topological transforms of a DAG for message passing. The node embeddings produced by the encoder are converted into node priorities which are used by the decoder to generate a probability distribution over topological orders. We train our model on a dataset of synthetically generated graphs called layered graphs. We show that our model outperforms, or is on-par, with several topological ordering baselines while being significantly faster on synthetic graphs with up to 2k nodes. We also train and test our model on a set of real-world computation graphs, showing performance improvements.

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Mukul Gagrani, Sagar Sudhakara, Aditya Mahajan, Ashutosh Nayyar, Yi Ouyang

We revisit the Thompson sampling algorithm to control an unknown linear quadratic (LQ) system recently proposed by Ouyang et al (arXiv:1709.04047). The regret bound of the algorithm was derived under a technical assumption on the induced norm of the closed loop system. In this technical note, we show that by making a minor modification in the algorithm (in particular, ensuring that an episode does not end too soon), this technical assumption on the induced norm can be replaced by a milder assumption in terms of the spectral radius of the closed loop system. The modified algorithm has the same Bayesian regret of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\sqrt{T})$, where $T$ is the time-horizon and the $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\cdot)$ notation hides logarithmic terms in~$T$.

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Mukul Gagrani, Sagar Sudhakara, Aditya Mahajan, Ashutosh Nayyar, Yi Ouyang

We consider optimal control of an unknown multi-agent linear quadratic (LQ) system where the dynamics and the cost are coupled across the agents through the mean-field (i.e., empirical mean) of the states and controls. Directly using single-agent LQ learning algorithms in such models results in regret which increases polynomially with the number of agents. We propose a new Thompson sampling based learning algorithm which exploits the structure of the system model and show that the expected Bayesian regret of our proposed algorithm for a system with agents of $|M|$ different types at time horizon $T$ is $\tilde{\mathcal{O}} \big( |M|^{1.5} \sqrt{T} \big)$ irrespective of the total number of agents, where the $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}$ notation hides logarithmic factors in $T$. We present detailed numerical experiments to illustrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm.

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Yi Ouyang, Mukul Gagrani, Ashutosh Nayyar, Rahul Jain

We consider the problem of learning an unknown Markov Decision Process (MDP) that is weakly communicating in the infinite horizon setting. We propose a Thompson Sampling-based reinforcement learning algorithm with dynamic episodes (TSDE). At the beginning of each episode, the algorithm generates a sample from the posterior distribution over the unknown model parameters. It then follows the optimal stationary policy for the sampled model for the rest of the episode. The duration of each episode is dynamically determined by two stopping criteria. The first stopping criterion controls the growth rate of episode length. The second stopping criterion happens when the number of visits to any state-action pair is doubled. We establish $\tilde O(HS\sqrt{AT})$ bounds on expected regret under a Bayesian setting, where $S$ and $A$ are the sizes of the state and action spaces, $T$ is time, and $H$ is the bound of the span. This regret bound matches the best available bound for weakly communicating MDPs. Numerical results show it to perform better than existing algorithms for infinite horizon MDPs.

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