Imitation learning has emerged as a promising approach for addressing sequential decision-making problems, with the assumption that expert demonstrations are optimal. However, in real-world scenarios, expert demonstrations are often imperfect, leading to challenges in effectively applying imitation learning. While existing research has focused on optimizing with imperfect demonstrations, the training typically requires a certain proportion of optimal demonstrations to guarantee performance. To tackle these problems, we propose to purify the potential perturbations in imperfect demonstrations and subsequently conduct imitation learning from purified demonstrations. Motivated by the success of diffusion models, we introduce a two-step purification via the diffusion process. In the first step, we apply a forward diffusion process to effectively smooth out the potential perturbations in imperfect demonstrations by introducing additional noise. Subsequently, a reverse generative process is utilized to recover the optimal expert demonstrations from the diffused ones. We provide theoretical evidence supporting our approach, demonstrating that total variance distance between the purified and optimal demonstration distributions can be upper-bounded. The evaluation results on MuJoCo demonstrate the effectiveness of our method from different aspects.
Adversarial training serves as one of the most popular and effective methods to defend against adversarial perturbations. However, most defense mechanisms only consider a single type of perturbation while various attack methods might be adopted to perform stronger adversarial attacks against the deployed model in real-world scenarios, e.g., $\ell_2$ or $\ell_\infty$. Defending against various attacks can be a challenging problem since multi-perturbation adversarial training and its variants only achieve suboptimal robustness trade-offs, due to the theoretical limit to multi-perturbation robustness for a single model. Besides, it is impractical to deploy large models in some storage-efficient scenarios. To settle down these drawbacks, in this paper we propose a novel multi-perturbation adversarial training framework, parameter-saving adversarial training (PSAT), to reinforce multi-perturbation robustness with an advantageous side effect of saving parameters, which leverages hypernetworks to train specialized models against a single perturbation and aggregate these specialized models to defend against multiple perturbations. Eventually, we extensively evaluate and compare our proposed method with state-of-the-art single/multi-perturbation robust methods against various latest attack methods on different datasets, showing the robustness superiority and parameter efficiency of our proposed method, e.g., for the CIFAR-10 dataset with ResNet-50 as the backbone, PSAT saves approximately 80\% of parameters with achieving the state-of-the-art robustness trade-off accuracy.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance on face recognition (FR) tasks in the last decade. In real scenarios, the deployment of DNNs requires taking various face accessories into consideration, like glasses, hats, and masks. In the COVID-19 pandemic era, wearing face masks is one of the most effective ways to defend against the novel coronavirus. However, DNNs are known to be vulnerable to adversarial examples with a small but elaborated perturbation. Thus, a facial mask with adversarial perturbations may pose a great threat to the widely used deep learning-based FR models. In this paper, we consider a challenging adversarial setting: targeted attack against FR models. We propose a new stealthy physical masked FR attack via adversarial style optimization. Specifically, we train an adversarial style mask generator that hides adversarial perturbations inside style masks. Moreover, to ameliorate the phenomenon of sub-optimization with one fixed style, we propose to discover the optimal style given a target through style optimization in a continuous relaxation manner. We simultaneously optimize the generator and the style selection for generating strong and stealthy adversarial style masks. We evaluated the effectiveness and transferability of our proposed method via extensive white-box and black-box digital experiments. Furthermore, we also conducted physical attack experiments against local FR models and online platforms.
Deep neural networks are increasingly utilized in various machine learning tasks. However, as these models grow in complexity, they often face calibration issues, despite enhanced prediction accuracy. Many studies have endeavored to improve calibration performance through data preprocessing, the use of specific loss functions, and training frameworks. Yet, investigations into calibration properties have been somewhat overlooked. Our study leverages the Neural Architecture Search (NAS) search space, offering an exhaustive model architecture space for thorough calibration properties exploration. We specifically create a model calibration dataset. This dataset evaluates 90 bin-based and 12 additional calibration measurements across 117,702 unique neural networks within the widely employed NATS-Bench search space. Our analysis aims to answer several longstanding questions in the field, using our proposed dataset: (i) Can model calibration be generalized across different tasks? (ii) Can robustness be used as a calibration measurement? (iii) How reliable are calibration metrics? (iv) Does a post-hoc calibration method affect all models uniformly? (v) How does calibration interact with accuracy? (vi) What is the impact of bin size on calibration measurement? (vii) Which architectural designs are beneficial for calibration? Additionally, our study bridges an existing gap by exploring calibration within NAS. By providing this dataset, we enable further research into NAS calibration. As far as we are aware, our research represents the first large-scale investigation into calibration properties and the premier study of calibration issues within NAS.
With the increasing number of new neural architecture designs and substantial existing neural architectures, it becomes difficult for the researchers to situate their contributions compared with existing neural architectures or establish the connections between their designs and other relevant ones. To discover similar neural architectures in an efficient and automatic manner, we define a new problem Neural Architecture Retrieval which retrieves a set of existing neural architectures which have similar designs to the query neural architecture. Existing graph pre-training strategies cannot address the computational graph in neural architectures due to the graph size and motifs. To fulfill this potential, we propose to divide the graph into motifs which are used to rebuild the macro graph to tackle these issues, and introduce multi-level contrastive learning to achieve accurate graph representation learning. Extensive evaluations on both human-designed and synthesized neural architectures demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm. Such a dataset which contains 12k real-world network architectures, as well as their embedding, is built for neural architecture retrieval.
The use of deep neural networks in real-world applications require well-calibrated networks with confidence scores that accurately reflect the actual probability. However, it has been found that these networks often provide over-confident predictions, which leads to poor calibration. Recent efforts have sought to address this issue by focal loss to reduce over-confidence, but this approach can also lead to under-confident predictions. While different variants of focal loss have been explored, it is difficult to find a balance between over-confidence and under-confidence. In our work, we propose a new loss function by focusing on dual logits. Our method not only considers the ground truth logit, but also take into account the highest logit ranked after the ground truth logit. By maximizing the gap between these two logits, our proposed dual focal loss can achieve a better balance between over-confidence and under-confidence. We provide theoretical evidence to support our approach and demonstrate its effectiveness through evaluations on multiple models and datasets, where it achieves state-of-the-art performance. Code is available at https://github.com/Linwei94/DualFocalLoss
Confidence calibration - the process to calibrate the output probability distribution of neural networks - is essential for safety-critical applications of such networks. Recent works verify the link between mis-calibration and overfitting. However, early stopping, as a well-known technique to mitigate overfitting, fails to calibrate networks. In this work, we study the limitions of early stopping and comprehensively analyze the overfitting problem of a network considering each individual block. We then propose a novel regularization method, predecessor combination search (PCS), to improve calibration by searching a combination of best-fitting block predecessors, where block predecessors are the corresponding network blocks with weight parameters from earlier training stages. PCS achieves the state-of-the-art calibration performance on multiple datasets and architectures. In addition, PCS improves model robustness under dataset distribution shift.
Recent breakthroughs in semi-supervised semantic segmentation have been developed through contrastive learning. In prevalent pixel-wise contrastive learning solutions, the model maps pixels to deterministic representations and regularizes them in the latent space. However, there exist inaccurate pseudo-labels which map the ambiguous representations of pixels to the wrong classes due to the limited cognitive ability of the model. In this paper, we define pixel-wise representations from a new perspective of probability theory and propose a Probabilistic Representation Contrastive Learning (PRCL) framework that improves representation quality by taking its probability into consideration. Through modeling the mapping from pixels to representations as the probability via multivariate Gaussian distributions, we can tune the contribution of the ambiguous representations to tolerate the risk of inaccurate pseudo-labels. Furthermore, we define prototypes in the form of distributions, which indicates the confidence of a class, while the point prototype cannot. Moreover, we propose to regularize the distribution variance to enhance the reliability of representations. Taking advantage of these benefits, high-quality feature representations can be derived in the latent space, thereby the performance of semantic segmentation can be further improved. We conduct sufficient experiment to evaluate PRCL on Pascal VOC and CityScapes. The comparisons with state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the superiority of proposed PRCL.
Adder neural networks (AdderNets) have shown impressive performance on image classification with only addition operations, which are more energy efficient than traditional convolutional neural networks built with multiplications. Compared with classification, there is a strong demand on reducing the energy consumption of modern object detectors via AdderNets for real-world applications such as autonomous driving and face detection. In this paper, we present an empirical study of AdderNets for object detection. We first reveal that the batch normalization statistics in the pre-trained adder backbone should not be frozen, since the relatively large feature variance of AdderNets. Moreover, we insert more shortcut connections in the neck part and design a new feature fusion architecture for avoiding the sparse features of adder layers. We present extensive ablation studies to explore several design choices of adder detectors. Comparisons with state-of-the-arts are conducted on COCO and PASCAL VOC benchmarks. Specifically, the proposed Adder FCOS achieves a 37.8\% AP on the COCO val set, demonstrating comparable performance to that of the convolutional counterpart with an about $1.4\times$ energy reduction.
Deep Neural Network (DNN) are vulnerable to adversarial attack. Existing methods are devoted to developing various robust training strategies or regularizations to update the weights of the neural network. But beyond the weights, the overall structure and information flow in the network are explicitly determined by the neural architecture, which remains unexplored. This paper thus aims to improve the adversarial robustness of the network from the architecture perspective with NAS framework. We explore the relationship among adversarial robustness, Lipschitz constant, and architecture parameters and show that an appropriate constraint on architecture parameters could reduce the Lipschitz constant to further improve the robustness. For NAS framework, all the architecture parameters are equally treated when the discrete architecture is sampled from supernet. However, the importance of architecture parameters could vary from operation to operation or connection to connection, which is not explored and might reduce the confidence of robust architecture sampling. Thus, we propose to sample architecture parameters from trainable multivariate log-normal distributions, with which the Lipschitz constant of entire network can be approximated using a univariate log-normal distribution with mean and variance related to architecture parameters. Compared with adversarially trained neural architectures searched by various NAS algorithms as well as efficient human-designed models, our algorithm empirically achieves the best performance among all the models under various attacks on different datasets.