Inverse text normalization (ITN) is used to convert the spoken form output of an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system to a written form. Traditional handcrafted ITN rules can be complex to transcribe and maintain. Meanwhile neural modeling approaches require quality large-scale spoken-written pair examples in the same or similar domain as the ASR system (in-domain data), to train. Both these approaches require costly and complex annotations. In this paper, we present a data augmentation technique that effectively generates rich spoken-written numeric pairs from out-of-domain textual data with minimal human annotation. We empirically demonstrate that ITN model trained using our data augmentation technique consistently outperform ITN model trained using only in-domain data across all numeric surfaces like cardinal, currency, and fraction, by an overall accuracy of 14.44%.
Speech sounds of spoken language are obtained by varying configuration of the articulators surrounding the vocal tract. They contain abundant information that can be utilized to better understand the underlying mechanism of human speech production. We propose a novel deep neural network-based learning framework that understands acoustic information in the variable-length sequence of vocal tract shaping during speech production, captured by real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI), and translate it into text. The proposed framework comprises of spatiotemporal convolutions, a recurrent network, and the connectionist temporal classification loss, trained entirely end-to-end. On the USC-TIMIT corpus, the model achieved a 40.6% PER at sentence-level, much better compared to the existing models. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the recognition of entire spoken sentence based on an individual's articulatory motions captured by rtMRI video. We also performed an analysis of variations in the geometry of articulation in each sub-regions of the vocal tract (i.e., pharyngeal, velar and dorsal, hard palate, labial constriction region) with respect to different emotions and genders. Results suggest that each sub-regions distortion is affected by both emotion and gender.