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Evgeniy Martyushev, Snehal Bhayani, Tomas Pajdla

In computer vision applications, the following problem often arises: Given a family of (Laurent) polynomial systems with the same monomial structure but varying coefficients, find a solver that computes solutions for any family member as fast as possible. Under appropriate genericity assumptions, the dimension and degree of the respective polynomial ideal remain unchanged for each particular system in the same family. The state-of-the-art approach to solving such problems is based on elimination templates, which are the coefficient (Macaulay) matrices that encode the transformation from the initial polynomials to the polynomials needed to construct the action matrix. Knowing an action matrix, the solutions of the system are computed from its eigenvectors. The important property of an elimination template is that it applies to all polynomial systems in the family. In this paper, we propose a new practical algorithm that checks whether a given set of Laurent polynomials is sufficient to construct an elimination template. Based on this algorithm, we propose an automatic solver generator for systems of Laurent polynomial equations. The new generator is simple and fast; it applies to ideals with positive-dimensional components; it allows one to uncover partial $p$-fold symmetries automatically. We test our generator on various minimal problems, mostly in geometric computer vision. The speed of the generated solvers exceeds the state-of-the-art in most cases. In particular, we propose the solvers for the following problems: optimal 3-view triangulation, semi-generalized hybrid pose estimation and minimal time-of-arrival self-calibration. The experiments on synthetic scenes show that our solvers are numerically accurate and either comparable to or significantly faster than the state-of-the-art solvers.

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Martina Dubenova, Anna Zderadickova, Ondrej Kafka, Tomas Pajdla, Michal Polic

Most state-of-the-art localization algorithms rely on robust relative pose estimation and geometry verification to obtain moving object agnostic camera poses in complex indoor environments. However, this approach is prone to mistakes if a scene contains repetitive structures, e.g., desks, tables, boxes, or moving people. We show that the movable objects incorporate non-negligible localization error and present a new straightforward method to predict the six-degree-of-freedom (6DoF) pose more robustly. We equipped the localization pipeline InLoc with real-time instance segmentation network YOLACT++. The masks of dynamic objects are employed in the relative pose estimation step and in the final sorting of camera pose proposal. At first, we filter out the matches laying on masks of the dynamic objects. Second, we skip the comparison of query and synthetic images on the area related to the moving object. This procedure leads to a more robust localization. Lastly, we describe and improve the mistakes caused by gradient-based comparison between synthetic and query images and publish a new pipeline for simulation of environments with movable objects from the Matterport scans. All the codes are available on github.com/dubenma/D-InLocpp .

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Aikaterini Adam, Torsten Sattler, Konstantinos Karantzalos, Tomas Pajdla

AR/VR applications and robots need to know when the scene has changed. An example is when objects are moved, added, or removed from the scene. We propose a 3D object discovery method that is based only on scene changes. Our method does not need to encode any assumptions about what is an object, but rather discovers objects by exploiting their coherent move. Changes are initially detected as differences in the depth maps and segmented as objects if they undergo rigid motions. A graph cut optimization propagates the changing labels to geometrically consistent regions. Experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the 3RScan dataset against competitive baselines. The source code of our method can be found at https://github.com/katadam/ObjectsCanMove.

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Evgeniy Martyushev, Jana Vrablikova, Tomas Pajdla

We propose a new method for constructing elimination templates for efficient polynomial system solving of minimal problems in structure from motion, image matching, and camera tracking. We first construct a particular affine parameterization of the elimination templates for systems with a finite number of distinct solutions. Then, we use a heuristic greedy optimization strategy over the space of parameters to get a template with a small size. We test our method on 34 minimal problems in computer vision. For all of them, we found the templates either of the same or smaller size compared to the state-of-the-art. For some difficult examples, our templates are, e.g., 2.1, 2.5, 3.8, 6.6 times smaller. For the problem of refractive absolute pose estimation with unknown focal length, we have found a template that is 20 times smaller. Our experiments on synthetic data also show that the new solvers are fast and numerically accurate. We also present a fast and numerically accurate solver for the problem of relative pose estimation with unknown common focal length and radial distortion.

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Petr Hruby, Timothy Duff, Anton Leykin, Tomas Pajdla

We present an approach to solving hard geometric optimization problems in the RANSAC framework. The hard minimal problems arise from relaxing the original geometric optimization problem into a minimal problem with many spurious solutions. Our approach avoids computing large numbers of spurious solutions. We design a learning strategy for selecting a starting problem-solution pair that can be numerically continued to the problem and the solution of interest. We demonstrate our approach by developing a RANSAC solver for the problem of computing the relative pose of three calibrated cameras, via a minimal relaxation using four points in each view. On average, we can solve a single problem in under 70 $\mu s.$ We also benchmark and study our engineering choices on the very familiar problem of computing the relative pose of two calibrated cameras, via the minimal case of five points in two views.

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Petr Hruby, Tomas Pajdla

We present a technique for a complete 3D reconstruction of small objects moving in front of a textured background. It is a particular variation of multibody structure from motion, which specializes to two objects only. The scene is captured in several static configurations between which the relative pose of the two objects may change. We reconstruct every static configuration individually and segment the points locally by finding multiple poses of cameras that capture the scene's other configurations. Then, the local segmentation results are combined, and the reconstructions are merged into the resulting model of the scene. In experiments with real artifacts, we show that our approach has practical advantages when reconstructing 3D objects from all sides. In this setting, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art. We integrate our method into the state of the art 3D reconstruction pipeline COLMAP.

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Timothy Duff, Viktor Korotynskiy, Tomas Pajdla, Margaret H. Regan

We consider Galois/monodromy groups arising in computer vision applications, with a view towards building more efficient polynomial solvers. The Galois/monodromy group allows us to decide when a given problem decomposes into algebraic subproblems, and whether or not it has any symmetries. Tools from numerical algebraic geometry and computational group theory allow us to apply this framework to classical and novel reconstruction problems. We consider three classical cases--3-point absolute pose, 5-point relative pose, and 4-point homography estimation for calibrated cameras--where the decomposition and symmetries may be naturally understood in terms of the Galois/monodromy group. We then show how our framework can be applied to novel problems from absolute and relative pose estimation. For instance, we discover new symmetries for absolute pose problems involving mixtures of point and line features. We also describe a problem of estimating a pair of calibrated homographies between three images. For this problem of degree 64, we can reduce the degree to 16; the latter better reflecting the intrinsic difficulty of algebraically solving the problem. As a byproduct, we obtain new constraints on compatible homographies, which may be of independent interest.

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Karla Stepanova, Jakub Rozlivek, Frantisek Puciow, Pavel Krsek, Tomas Pajdla, Matej Hoffmann

We present a robot kinematic calibration method that combines complementary calibration approaches: self-contact, planar constraints, and self-observation. We analyze the estimation of the end effector parameters, joint offsets of the manipulators, calibration of the complete kinematic chain (DH parameters), and we compare our results with ground truth measurements provided by a laser tracker. Our main findings are: (1) When applying the complementary calibration approaches in isolation, the self-contact approach yields the best and most stable results. (2) All combinations of more than one approach were always superior to using any single approach in terms of calibration errors as well as the observability of the estimated parameters. Combining more approaches delivers robot parameters that better generalize to the parts of workspace not used for the calibration. (3) Sequential calibration, i.e.\ calibrating cameras first and then robot kinematics, is more effective than simultaneous calibration of all parameters. In real experiments, we employ two industrial manipulators mounted on a common base. The manipulators are equipped with force/torque sensors at their wrists, with two cameras attached to the robot base, and with special end effectors with fiducial markers. We collect a new comprehensive dataset for robot kinematic calibration and make it publicly available. The dataset and its analysis provide quantitative and qualitative insights that go beyond the specific manipulators used in this work and are applicable to self-contained robot kinematic calibration in general.

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Pavel Trutman, Safey El Din Mohab, Didier Henrion, Tomas Pajdla

The Inverse Kinematics (IK) problem is to nd robot control parameters to bring it into the desired position under the kinematics and collision constraints. We present a global solution to the optimal IK problem for a general serial 7DOF manipulator with revolute joints and a quadratic polynomial objective function. We show that the kinematic constraints due to rotations can all be generated by second-degree polynomials. This is important since it signicantly simplies further step where we nd the optimal solution by Lasserre relaxations of non-convex polynomial systems. We demonstrate that the second relaxation is sucient to solve the 7DOF IK problem. Our approach is certiably globally optimal. We demonstrate the method on the 7DOF KUKA LBR IIWA manipulator and show that we are able to compute the optimal IK or certify in-feasibility in 99 % tested poses.

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Daniel Barath, Michal Polic, Wolfgang Förstner, Torsten Sattler, Tomas Pajdla, Zuzana Kukelova

Local features e.g. SIFT and its affine and learned variants provide region-to-region rather than point-to-point correspondences. This has recently been exploited to create new minimal solvers for classical problems such as homography, essential and fundamental matrix estimation. The main advantage of such solvers is that their sample size is smaller, e.g., only two instead of four matches are required to estimate a homography. Works proposing such solvers often claim a significant improvement in run-time thanks to fewer RANSAC iterations. We show that this argument is not valid in practice if the solvers are used naively. To overcome this, we propose guidelines for effective use of region-to-region matches in the course of a full model estimation pipeline. We propose a method for refining the local feature geometries by symmetric intensity-based matching, combine uncertainty propagation inside RANSAC with preemptive model verification, show a general scheme for computing uncertainty of minimal solvers results, and adapt the sample cheirality check for homography estimation. Our experiments show that affine solvers can achieve accuracy comparable to point-based solvers at faster run-times when following our guidelines. We make code available at https://github.com/danini/affine-correspondences-for-camera-geometry.

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