We show that large language models (LLMs) can be adapted to be generalizable policies for embodied visual tasks. Our approach, called Large LAnguage model Reinforcement Learning Policy (LLaRP), adapts a pre-trained frozen LLM to take as input text instructions and visual egocentric observations and output actions directly in the environment. Using reinforcement learning, we train LLaRP to see and act solely through environmental interactions. We show that LLaRP is robust to complex paraphrasings of task instructions and can generalize to new tasks that require novel optimal behavior. In particular, on 1,000 unseen tasks it achieves 42% success rate, 1.7x the success rate of other common learned baselines or zero-shot applications of LLMs. Finally, to aid the community in studying language conditioned, massively multi-task, embodied AI problems we release a novel benchmark, Language Rearrangement, consisting of 150,000 training and 1,000 testing tasks for language-conditioned rearrangement. Video examples of LLaRP in unseen Language Rearrangement instructions are at https://llm-rl.github.io.
Preference-based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms help avoid the pitfalls of hand-crafted reward functions by distilling them from human preference feedback, but they remain impractical due to the burdensome number of labels required from the human, even for relatively simple tasks. In this work, we demonstrate that encoding environment dynamics in the reward function (REED) dramatically reduces the number of preference labels required in state-of-the-art preference-based RL frameworks. We hypothesize that REED-based methods better partition the state-action space and facilitate generalization to state-action pairs not included in the preference dataset. REED iterates between encoding environment dynamics in a state-action representation via a self-supervised temporal consistency task, and bootstrapping the preference-based reward function from the state-action representation. Whereas prior approaches train only on the preference-labelled trajectory pairs, REED exposes the state-action representation to all transitions experienced during policy training. We explore the benefits of REED within the PrefPPO  and PEBBLE  preference learning frameworks and demonstrate improvements across experimental conditions to both the speed of policy learning and the final policy performance. For example, on quadruped-walk and walker-walk with 50 preference labels, REED-based reward functions recover 83% and 66% of ground truth reward policy performance and without REED only 38\% and 21\% are recovered. For some domains, REED-based reward functions result in policies that outperform policies trained on the ground truth reward.
Specifying rewards for reinforcement learned (RL) agents is challenging. Preference-based RL (PbRL) mitigates these challenges by inferring a reward from feedback over sets of trajectories. However, the effectiveness of PbRL is limited by the amount of feedback needed to reliably recover the structure of the target reward. We present the PRIor Over Rewards (PRIOR) framework, which incorporates priors about the structure of the reward function and the preference feedback into the reward learning process. Imposing these priors as soft constraints on the reward learning objective reduces the amount of feedback required by half and improves overall reward recovery. Additionally, we demonstrate that using an abstract state space for the computation of the priors further improves the reward learning and the agent's performance.
Generating realistic lip motions to simulate speech production is key for driving natural character animations from audio. Previous research has shown that traditional metrics used to optimize and assess models for generating lip motions from speech are not a good indicator of subjective opinion of animation quality. Yet, running repetitive subjective studies for assessing the quality of animations can be time-consuming and difficult to replicate. In this work, we seek to understand the relationship between perturbed lip motion and subjective opinion of lip motion quality. Specifically, we adjust the degree of articulation for lip motion sequences and run a user-study to examine how this adjustment impacts the perceived quality of lip motion. We then train a model using the scores collected from our user-study to automatically predict the subjective quality of an animated sequence. Our results show that (1) users score lip motions with slight over-articulation the highest in terms of perceptual quality; (2) under-articulation had a more detrimental effect on perceived quality of lip motion compared to the effect of over-articulation; and (3) we can automatically estimate the subjective perceptual score for a given lip motion sequences with low error rates.
Federated learning enables the deployment of machine learning to problems for which centralized data collection is impractical. Adding differential privacy guarantees bounds on privacy while data are contributed to a global model. Adding personalization to federated learning introduces new challenges as we must account for preferences of individual users, where a data sample could have conflicting labels because one sub-population of users might view an input positively, but other sub-populations view the same input negatively. We present FedEmbed, a new approach to private federated learning for personalizing a global model that uses (1) sub-populations of similar users, and (2) personal embeddings. We demonstrate that current approaches to federated learning are inadequate for handling data with conflicting labels, and we show that FedEmbed achieves up to 45% improvement over baseline approaches to personalized private federated learning.
We describe experiments towards building a conversational digital assistant that considers the preferred conversational style of the user. In particular, these experiments are designed to measure whether users prefer and trust an assistant whose conversational style matches their own. To this end we conducted a user study where subjects interacted with a digital assistant that responded in a way that either matched their conversational style, or did not. Using self-reported personality attributes and subjects' feedback on the interactions, we built models that can reliably predict a user's preferred conversational style.
We propose a method for modeling and learning turn-taking behaviors for accessing a shared resource. We model the individual behavior for each agent in an interaction and then use a multi-agent fusion model to generate a summary over the expected actions of the group to render the model independent of the number of agents. The individual behavior models are weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) with weights dynamically updated during interactions, and the multi-agent fusion model is a logistic regression classifier. We test our models in a multi-agent tower-building environment, where a Q-learning agent learns to interact with rule-based agents. Our approach accurately models the underlying behavior patterns of the rule-based agents with accuracy ranging between 0.63 and 1.0 depending on the stochasticity of the other agent behaviors. In addition we show using KL-divergence that the model accurately captures the distribution of next actions when interacting with both a single agent (KL-divergence < 0.1) and with multiple agents (KL-divergence < 0.37). Finally, we demonstrate that our behavior model can be used by a Q-learning agent to take turns in an interactive turn-taking environment.
* 14 pages, 9 figures, 3 tables, International Conference on Autonomous
Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS), machine learning, Reinforcement