International benchmarking competitions have become fundamental for the comparative performance assessment of image analysis methods. However, little attention has been given to investigating what can be learnt from these competitions. Do they really generate scientific progress? What are common and successful participation strategies? What makes a solution superior to a competing method? To address this gap in the literature, we performed a multi-center study with all 80 competitions that were conducted in the scope of IEEE ISBI 2021 and MICCAI 2021. Statistical analyses performed based on comprehensive descriptions of the submitted algorithms linked to their rank as well as the underlying participation strategies revealed common characteristics of winning solutions. These typically include the use of multi-task learning (63%) and/or multi-stage pipelines (61%), and a focus on augmentation (100%), image preprocessing (97%), data curation (79%), and postprocessing (66%). The "typical" lead of a winning team is a computer scientist with a doctoral degree, five years of experience in biomedical image analysis, and four years of experience in deep learning. Two core general development strategies stood out for highly-ranked teams: the reflection of the metrics in the method design and the focus on analyzing and handling failure cases. According to the organizers, 43% of the winning algorithms exceeded the state of the art but only 11% completely solved the respective domain problem. The insights of our study could help researchers (1) improve algorithm development strategies when approaching new problems, and (2) focus on open research questions revealed by this work.
Score-based generative models (SGMs) are a recent breakthrough in generating fake images. SGMs are known to surpass other generative models, e.g., generative adversarial networks (GANs) and variational autoencoders (VAEs). Being inspired by their big success, in this work, we fully customize them for generating fake tabular data. In particular, we are interested in oversampling minor classes since imbalanced classes frequently lead to sub-optimal training outcomes. To our knowledge, we are the first presenting a score-based tabular data oversampling method. Firstly, we re-design our own score network since we have to process tabular data. Secondly, we propose two options for our generation method: the former is equivalent to a style transfer for tabular data and the latter uses the standard generative policy of SGMs. Lastly, we define a fine-tuning method, which further enhances the oversampling quality. In our experiments with 6 datasets and 10 baselines, our method outperforms other oversampling methods in all cases.
Tabular data synthesis has received wide attention in the literature. This is because available data is often limited, incomplete, or cannot be obtained easily, and data privacy is becoming increasingly important. In this work, we present a generalized GAN framework for tabular synthesis, which combines the adversarial training of GANs and the negative log-density regularization of invertible neural networks. The proposed framework can be used for two distinctive objectives. First, we can further improve the synthesis quality, by decreasing the negative log-density of real records in the process of adversarial training. On the other hand, by increasing the negative log-density of real records, realistic fake records can be synthesized in a way that they are not too much close to real records and reduce the chance of potential information leakage. We conduct experiments with real-world datasets for classification, regression, and privacy attacks. In general, the proposed method demonstrates the best synthesis quality (in terms of task-oriented evaluation metrics, e.g., F1) when decreasing the negative log-density during the adversarial training. If increasing the negative log-density, our experimental results show that the distance between real and fake records increases, enhancing robustness against privacy attacks.
We propose a new training scheme for domain generalization in mitotic figure detection. Mitotic figures show different characteristics for each scanner. We consider each scanner as a 'domain' and the image distribution specified for each domain as 'style'. The goal is to train our network to be robust on scanner types by using various 'style' images. To expand the style variance, we transfer a style of the training image into arbitrary styles, by defining a module based on StarGAN. Our model with the proposed training scheme shows positive performance on MIDOG Preliminary Test-Set containing scanners never seen before.
We propose a new training scheme for domain generalization in mitotic figure detection. By considering the image variance due to different scanner types as different image styles, we have trained our detection network to be robust on scanner types. To expand the image variance, domain of training image is transferred into arbitrary domain. The proposed style transfer module generates different styled images from an input image with random code, eventually generating variously styled images. Our model with the proposed training scheme shows good performance on MIDOG Preliminary Test-Set containing scanners never seen before.