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Kyungeun Lee, Jaeill Kim, Suhyun Kang, Wonjong Rhee

Contrastive learning has emerged as a cornerstone in recent achievements of unsupervised representation learning. Its primary paradigm involves an instance discrimination task with a mutual information loss. The loss is known as InfoNCE and it has yielded vital insights into contrastive learning through the lens of mutual information analysis. However, the estimation of mutual information can prove challenging, creating a gap between the elegance of its mathematical foundation and the complexity of its estimation. As a result, drawing rigorous insights or conclusions from mutual information analysis becomes intricate. In this study, we introduce three novel methods and a few related theorems, aimed at enhancing the rigor of mutual information analysis. Despite their simplicity, these methods can carry substantial utility. Leveraging these approaches, we reassess three instances of contrastive learning analysis, illustrating their capacity to facilitate deeper comprehension or to rectify pre-existing misconceptions. Specifically, we investigate small batch size, mutual information as a measure, and the InfoMin principle.

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Jungwook Shin, Jaeill Kim, Kyungeun Lee, Hyunghun Cho, Wonjong Rhee

In autonomous driving, data augmentation is commonly used for improving 3D object detection. The most basic methods include insertion of copied objects and rotation and scaling of the entire training frame. Numerous variants have been developed as well. The existing methods, however, are considerably limited when compared to the variety of the real world possibilities. In this work, we develop a diversified and realistic augmentation method that can flexibly construct a whole-body object, freely locate and rotate the object, and apply self-occlusion and external-occlusion accordingly. To improve the diversity of the whole-body object construction, we develop an iterative method that stochastically combines multiple objects observed from the real world into a single object. Unlike the existing augmentation methods, the constructed objects can be randomly located and rotated in the training frame because proper occlusions can be reflected to the whole-body objects in the final step. Finally, proper self-occlusion at each local object level and external-occlusion at the global frame level are applied using the Hidden Point Removal (HPR) algorithm that is computationally efficient. HPR is also used for adaptively controlling the point density of each object according to the object's distance from the LiDAR. Experiment results show that the proposed DR.CPO algorithm is data-efficient and model-agnostic without incurring any computational overhead. Also, DR.CPO can improve mAP performance by 2.08% when compared to the best 3D detection result known for KITTI dataset. The code is available at https://github.com/SNU-DRL/DRCPO.git

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Kyungeun Lee, Moonjung Eo, Euna Jung, Yoonjin Yoon, Wonjong Rhee

In modern transportation systems, an enormous amount of traffic data is generated every day. This has led to rapid progress in short-term traffic prediction (STTP), in which deep learning methods have recently been applied. In traffic networks with complex spatiotemporal relationships, deep neural networks (DNNs) often perform well because they are capable of automatically extracting the most important features and patterns. In this study, we survey recent STTP studies applying deep networks from four perspectives. 1) We summarize input data representation methods according to the number and type of spatial and temporal dependencies involved. 2) We briefly explain a wide range of DNN techniques from the earliest networks, including Restricted Boltzmann Machines, to the most recent, including graph-based and meta-learning networks. 3) We summarize previous STTP studies in terms of the type of DNN techniques, application area, dataset and code availability, and the type of the represented spatiotemporal dependencies. 4) We compile public traffic datasets that are popular and can be used as the standard benchmarks. Finally, we suggest challenging issues and possible future research directions in STTP.

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Kyungeun Lee, Wonjong Rhee

Graph convolutional network is a generalization of convolutional network for learning graph-structured data. In some of the recent works on traffic networks, a few graph convolutional blocks have been designed and shown to be useful. In this work, we extend the ideas and provide a systematic way of creating graph convolutional modules. The method consists of designing basic weighted adjacency matrices as the smallest building blocks, defining partition functions that can partition a weighted adjacency matrix into M matrices that can also serve as building blocks, and finally designing graph convolutional modules using the building blocks. We evaluate some of the designed modules by replacing the graph convolutional parts in STGCN and DCRNN, and find 8.4% to 25.0% reduction in speed estimation error.

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Daeyoung Choi, Kyungeun Lee, Changho Shin, Wonjong Rhee

It has been common to argue or imply that a regularizer can be used to alter a statistical property of a hidden layer's representation and thus improve generalization or performance of deep networks. For instance, dropout has been known to improve performance by reducing co-adaptation, and representational sparsity has been argued as a good characteristic because many data-generation processes have a small number of factors that are independent. In this work, we analytically and empirically investigate the popular characteristics of learned representations, including correlation, sparsity, dead unit, rank, and mutual information, and disprove many of the \textit{conventional wisdom}. We first show that infinitely many Identical Output Networks (IONs) can be constructed for any deep network with a linear layer, where any invertible affine transformation can be applied to alter the layer's representation characteristics. The existence of ION proves that the correlation characteristics of representation is irrelevant to the performance. Extensions to ReLU layers are provided, too. Then, we consider sparsity, dead unit, and rank to show that only loose relationships exist among the three characteristics. It is shown that a higher sparsity or additional dead units do not imply a better or worse performance when the rank of representation is fixed. We also develop a rank regularizer and show that neither representation sparsity nor lower rank is helpful for improving performance even when the data-generation process has a small number of independent factors. Mutual information $I(\mathbf{z}_l;\mathbf{x})$ and $I(\mathbf{z}_l;\mathbf{y})$ are investigated, and we show that regularizers can affect $I(\mathbf{z}_l;\mathbf{x})$ and thus indirectly influence the performance. Finally, we explain how a rich set of regularizers can be used as a powerful tool for performance tuning.

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