Model-agnostic anomaly detection is one of the promising approaches in the search for new beyond the standard model physics. In this paper, we present Set-VAE, a particle-based variational autoencoder (VAE) anomaly detection algorithm. We demonstrate a 2x signal efficiency gain compared with traditional subjettiness-based jet selection. Furthermore, with an eye to the future deployment to trigger systems, we propose the CLIP-VAE, which reduces the inference-time cost of anomaly detection by using the KL-divergence loss as the anomaly score, resulting in a 2x acceleration in latency and reducing the caching requirement.
* 7 pages, 4 figures, accepted at the Machine Learning and the Physical
Sciences Workshop, NeurIPS 2023
The challenging environment of real-time data processing systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) strictly limits the computational complexity of algorithms that can be deployed. For deep learning models, this implies that only models with low computational complexity that have weak inductive bias are feasible. To address this issue, we utilize knowledge distillation to leverage both the performance of large models and the reduced computational complexity of small ones. In this paper, we present an implementation of knowledge distillation, demonstrating an overall boost in the student models' performance for the task of classifying jets at the LHC. Furthermore, by using a teacher model with a strong inductive bias of Lorentz symmetry, we show that we can induce the same inductive bias in the student model which leads to better robustness against arbitrary Lorentz boost.
* 7 pages, 3 figures, accepted at the Machine Learning and the Physical
Sciences Workshop, NeurIPS 2023
The particle-flow (PF) algorithm, which infers particles based on tracks and calorimeter clusters, is of central importance to event reconstruction in the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, and has been a focus of development in light of planned Phase-2 running conditions with an increased pileup and detector granularity. In recent years, the machine learned particle-flow (MLPF) algorithm, a graph neural network that performs PF reconstruction, has been explored in CMS, with the possible advantages of directly optimizing for the physical quantities of interest, being highly reconfigurable to new conditions, and being a natural fit for deployment to heterogeneous accelerators. We discuss progress in CMS towards an improved implementation of the MLPF reconstruction, now optimized using generator/simulation-level particle information as the target for the first time. This paves the way to potentially improving the detector response in terms of physical quantities of interest. We describe the simulation-based training target, progress and studies on event-based loss terms, details on the model hyperparameter tuning, as well as physics validation with respect to the current PF algorithm in terms of high-level physical quantities such as the jet and missing transverse momentum resolutions. We find that the MLPF algorithm, trained on a generator/simulator level particle information for the first time, results in broadly compatible particle and jet reconstruction performance with the baseline PF, setting the stage for improving the physics performance by additional training statistics and model tuning.
* ACAT 2022: 21st International Workshop on Advanced Computing and
Analysis Techniques in Physics Research * 7 pages, 4 Figures, 1 Table
The growing role of data science (DS) and machine learning (ML) in high-energy physics (HEP) is well established and pertinent given the complex detectors, large data, sets and sophisticated analyses at the heart of HEP research. Moreover, exploiting symmetries inherent in physics data have inspired physics-informed ML as a vibrant sub-field of computer science research. HEP researchers benefit greatly from materials widely available materials for use in education, training and workforce development. They are also contributing to these materials and providing software to DS/ML-related fields. Increasingly, physics departments are offering courses at the intersection of DS, ML and physics, often using curricula developed by HEP researchers and involving open software and data used in HEP. In this white paper, we explore synergies between HEP research and DS/ML education, discuss opportunities and challenges at this intersection, and propose community activities that will be mutually beneficial.
We study how to use Deep Variational Autoencoders for a fast simulation of jets of particles at the LHC. We represent jets as a list of constituents, characterized by their momenta. Starting from a simulation of the jet before detector effects, we train a Deep Variational Autoencoder to return the corresponding list of constituents after detection. Doing so, we bypass both the time-consuming detector simulation and the collision reconstruction steps of a traditional processing chain, speeding up significantly the events generation workflow. Through model optimization and hyperparameter tuning, we achieve state-of-the-art precision on the jet four-momentum, while providing an accurate description of the constituents momenta, and an inference time comparable to that of a rule-based fast simulation.
We provide details on the implementation of a machine-learning based particle flow algorithm for CMS. The standard particle flow algorithm reconstructs stable particles based on calorimeter clusters and tracks to provide a global event reconstruction that exploits the combined information of multiple detector subsystems, leading to strong improvements for quantities such as jets and missing transverse energy. We have studied a possible evolution of particle flow towards heterogeneous computing platforms such as GPUs using a graph neural network. The machine-learned PF model reconstructs particle candidates based on the full list of tracks and calorimeter clusters in the event. For validation, we determine the physics performance directly in the CMS software framework when the proposed algorithm is interfaced with the offline reconstruction of jets and missing transverse energy. We also report the computational performance of the algorithm, which scales approximately linearly in runtime and memory usage with the input size.
* 12 pages, 6 figures. Presented at the ACAT 2021: 20th International
Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research,
Daejeon, Kr, 29 Nov - 3 Dec 2021
Autoencoders have useful applications in high energy physics in anomaly detection, particularly for jets - collimated showers of particles produced in collisions such as those at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We explore the use of graph-based autoencoders, which operate on jets in their "particle cloud" representations and can leverage the interdependencies among the particles within a jet, for such tasks. Additionally, we develop a differentiable approximation to the energy mover's distance via a graph neural network, which may subsequently be used as a reconstruction loss function for autoencoders.
* 5 pages, 2 figures. Accepted to the Machine Learning for the Physical
Sciences workshop at NeurIPS 2021. arXiv admin note: text overlap with
The particle-flow (PF) algorithm is used in general-purpose particle detectors to reconstruct a comprehensive particle-level view of the collision by combining information from different subdetectors. A graph neural network (GNN) model, known as the machine-learned particle-flow (MLPF) algorithm, has been developed to substitute the rule-based PF algorithm. However, understanding the model's decision making is not straightforward, especially given the complexity of the set-to-set prediction task, dynamic graph building, and message-passing steps. In this paper, we adapt the layerwise-relevance propagation technique for GNNs and apply it to the MLPF algorithm to gauge the relevant nodes and features for its predictions. Through this process, we gain insight into the model's decision-making.
* 5 pages, 3 figures. Accepted to Machine Learning for Physical
Sciences NeurIPS 2021 workshop
In this community review report, we discuss applications and techniques for fast machine learning (ML) in science -- the concept of integrating power ML methods into the real-time experimental data processing loop to accelerate scientific discovery. The material for the report builds on two workshops held by the Fast ML for Science community and covers three main areas: applications for fast ML across a number of scientific domains; techniques for training and implementing performant and resource-efficient ML algorithms; and computing architectures, platforms, and technologies for deploying these algorithms. We also present overlapping challenges across the multiple scientific domains where common solutions can be found. This community report is intended to give plenty of examples and inspiration for scientific discovery through integrated and accelerated ML solutions. This is followed by a high-level overview and organization of technical advances, including an abundance of pointers to source material, which can enable these breakthroughs.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) will be upgraded to further increase the instantaneous rate of particle collisions (luminosity) and become the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This increase in luminosity will significantly increase the number of particles interacting with the detector. The interaction of particles with a detector is referred to as "hit". The HL-LHC will yield many more detector hits, which will pose a combinatorial challenge by using reconstruction algorithms to determine particle trajectories from those hits. This work explores the possibility of converting a novel Graph Neural Network model, that can optimally take into account the sparse nature of the tracking detector data and their complex geometry, to a Hybrid Quantum-Classical Graph Neural Network that benefits from using Variational Quantum layers. We show that this hybrid model can perform similar to the classical approach. Also, we explore Parametrized Quantum Circuits (PQC) with different expressibility and entangling capacities, and compare their training performance in order to quantify the expected benefits. These results can be used to build a future road map to further develop circuit based Hybrid Quantum-Classical Graph Neural Networks.