Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
Training and evaluating language models increasingly requires the construction of meta-datasets --diverse collections of curated data with clear provenance. Natural language prompting has recently lead to improved zero-shot generalization by transforming existing, supervised datasets into a diversity of novel pretraining tasks, highlighting the benefits of meta-dataset curation. While successful in general-domain text, translating these data-centric approaches to biomedical language modeling remains challenging, as labeled biomedical datasets are significantly underrepresented in popular data hubs. To address this challenge, we introduce BigBIO a community library of 126+ biomedical NLP datasets, currently covering 12 task categories and 10+ languages. BigBIO facilitates reproducible meta-dataset curation via programmatic access to datasets and their metadata, and is compatible with current platforms for prompt engineering and end-to-end few/zero shot language model evaluation. We discuss our process for task schema harmonization, data auditing, contribution guidelines, and outline two illustrative use cases: zero-shot evaluation of biomedical prompts and large-scale, multi-task learning. BigBIO is an ongoing community effort and is available at https://github.com/bigscience-workshop/biomedical
PromptSource is a system for creating, sharing, and using natural language prompts. Prompts are functions that map an example from a dataset to a natural language input and target output. Using prompts to train and query language models is an emerging area in NLP that requires new tools that let users develop and refine these prompts collaboratively. PromptSource addresses the emergent challenges in this new setting with (1) a templating language for defining data-linked prompts, (2) an interface that lets users quickly iterate on prompt development by observing outputs of their prompts on many examples, and (3) a community-driven set of guidelines for contributing new prompts to a common pool. Over 2,000 prompts for roughly 170 datasets are already available in PromptSource. PromptSource is available at https://github.com/bigscience-workshop/promptsource.
Despite the routine use of electronic health record (EHR) data by radiologists to contextualize clinical history and inform image interpretation, the majority of deep learning architectures for medical imaging are unimodal, i.e., they only learn features from pixel-level information. Recent research revealing how race can be recovered from pixel data alone highlights the potential for serious biases in models which fail to account for demographics and other key patient attributes. Yet the lack of imaging datasets which capture clinical context, inclusive of demographics and longitudinal medical history, has left multimodal medical imaging underexplored. To better assess these challenges, we present RadFusion, a multimodal, benchmark dataset of 1794 patients with corresponding EHR data and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans labeled for pulmonary embolism. We evaluate several representative multimodal fusion models and benchmark their fairness properties across protected subgroups, e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, age. Our results suggest that integrating imaging and EHR data can improve classification performance and robustness without introducing large disparities in the true positive rate between population groups.
Large language models have recently been shown to attain reasonable zero-shot generalization on a diverse set of tasks. It has been hypothesized that this is a consequence of implicit multitask learning in language model training. Can zero-shot generalization instead be directly induced by explicit multitask learning? To test this question at scale, we develop a system for easily mapping general natural language tasks into a human-readable prompted form. We convert a large set of supervised datasets, each with multiple prompts using varying natural language. These prompted datasets allow for benchmarking the ability of a model to perform completely unseen tasks specified in natural language. We fine-tune a pretrained encoder-decoder model on this multitask mixture covering a wide variety of tasks. The model attains strong zero-shot performance on several standard datasets, often outperforming models 16x its size. Further, our approach attains strong performance on a subset of tasks from the BIG-Bench benchmark, outperforming models 6x its size. All prompts and trained models are available at github.com/bigscience-workshop/promptsource/.
A third of adults in America use the Internet to diagnose medical concerns, and online symptom checkers are increasingly part of this process. These tools are powered by diagnosis models similar to clinical decision support systems, with the primary difference being the coverage of symptoms and diagnoses. To be useful to patients and physicians, these models must have high accuracy while covering a meaningful space of symptoms and diagnoses. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first in studying the trade-off between the coverage of the model and its performance for diagnosis. To this end, we learn diagnosis models with different coverage from EHR data. We find a 1\% drop in top-3 accuracy for every 10 diseases added to the coverage. We also observe that complexity for these models does not affect performance, with linear models performing as well as neural networks.
This volume represents the accepted submissions from the Machine Learning for Health (ML4H) workshop at the conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) 2018, held on December 8, 2018 in Montreal, Canada.
We submitted two systems to the SemEval-2016 Task 12: Clinical TempEval challenge, participating in Phase 1, where we identified text spans of time and event expressions in clinical notes and Phase 2, where we predicted a relation between an event and its parent document creation time. For temporal entity extraction, we find that a joint inference-based approach using structured prediction outperforms a vanilla recurrent neural network that incorporates word embeddings trained on a variety of large clinical document sets. For document creation time relations, we find that a combination of date canonicalization and distant supervision rules for predicting relations on both events and time expressions improves classification, though gains are limited, likely due to the small scale of training data.