Large Language Models (LLMs) have taken Knowledge Representation -- and the world -- by storm. This inflection point marks a shift from explicit knowledge representation to a renewed focus on the hybrid representation of both explicit knowledge and parametric knowledge. In this position paper, we will discuss some of the common debate points within the community on LLMs (parametric knowledge) and Knowledge Graphs (explicit knowledge) and speculate on opportunities and visions that the renewed focus brings, as well as related research topics and challenges.
Given the success of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) for structure-aware machine learning, numerous studies have explored their application to text classification, as an alternative to traditional feature representation models. However, most studies considered just a specific domain and validated on data with particular characteristics. This work presents an extensive empirical investigation of graph-based text representation methods proposed for text classification, identifying practical implications and open challenges in the field. We compare several GNN architectures as well as BERT across five datasets, encompassing short and also long documents. The results show that: i) graph performance is highly related to the textual input features and domain, ii) despite its outstanding performance, BERT has difficulties converging when dealing with short texts, iii) graph methods are particularly beneficial for longer documents.
Using model weights pretrained on a high-resource language as a warm start can reduce the need for data and compute to obtain high-quality language models in low-resource languages. To accommodate the new language, the pretrained vocabulary and embeddings need to be adapted. Previous work on embedding initialization for such adapted vocabularies has mostly focused on monolingual source models. In this paper, we investigate the multilingual source model setting and propose FOCUS - Fast Overlapping Token Combinations Using Sparsemax, a novel embedding initialization method that outperforms previous work when adapting XLM-R. FOCUS represents newly added tokens as combinations of tokens in the overlap of the pretrained and new vocabularies. The overlapping tokens are selected based on semantic similarity in an auxiliary token embedding space. Our implementation of FOCUS is publicly available on GitHub.
Recent breakthroughs in self supervised training have led to a new class of pretrained vision language models. While there have been investigations of bias in multimodal models, they have mostly focused on gender and racial bias, giving much less attention to other relevant groups, such as minorities with regard to religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or disabilities. This is mainly due to lack of suitable benchmarks for such groups. We seek to address this gap by providing a visual and textual bias benchmark called MMBias, consisting of around 3,800 images and phrases covering 14 population subgroups. We utilize this dataset to assess bias in several prominent self supervised multimodal models, including CLIP, ALBEF, and ViLT. Our results show that these models demonstrate meaningful bias favoring certain groups. Finally, we introduce a debiasing method designed specifically for such large pre-trained models that can be applied as a post-processing step to mitigate bias, while preserving the remaining accuracy of the model.
We introduce ViLPAct, a novel vision-language benchmark for human activity planning. It is designed for a task where embodied AI agents can reason and forecast future actions of humans based on video clips about their initial activities and intents in text. The dataset consists of 2.9k videos from \charades extended with intents via crowdsourcing, a multi-choice question test set, and four strong baselines. One of the baselines implements a neurosymbolic approach based on a multi-modal knowledge base (MKB), while the other ones are deep generative models adapted from recent state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods. According to our extensive experiments, the key challenges are compositional generalization and effective use of information from both modalities.
Video recognition has been dominated by the end-to-end learning paradigm -- first initializing a video recognition model with weights of a pretrained image model and then conducting end-to-end training on videos. This enables the video network to benefit from the pretrained image model. However, this requires substantial computation and memory resources for finetuning on videos and the alternative of directly using pretrained image features without finetuning the image backbone leads to subpar results. Fortunately, recent advances in Contrastive Vision-Language Pre-training (CLIP) pave the way for a new route for visual recognition tasks. Pretrained on large open-vocabulary image-text pair data, these models learn powerful visual representations with rich semantics. In this paper, we present Efficient Video Learning (EVL) -- an efficient framework for directly training high-quality video recognition models with frozen CLIP features. Specifically, we employ a lightweight Transformer decoder and learn a query token to dynamically collect frame-level spatial features from the CLIP image encoder. Furthermore, we adopt a local temporal module in each decoder layer to discover temporal clues from adjacent frames and their attention maps. We show that despite being efficient to train with a frozen backbone, our models learn high quality video representations on a variety of video recognition datasets. Code is available at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/efficient-video-recognition.
Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.
Recently CKY-based models show great potential in unsupervised grammar induction thanks to their human-like encoding paradigm, which runs recursively and hierarchically, but requires $O(n^3)$ time-complexity. Recursive Transformer based on Differentiable Trees (R2D2) makes it possible to scale to large language model pre-training even with complex tree encoder by introducing a heuristic pruning method. However, the rule-based pruning approach suffers from local optimum and slow inference issues. In this paper, we fix those issues in a unified method. We propose to use a top-down parser as a model-based pruning method, which also enables parallel encoding during inference. Typically, our parser casts parsing as a split point scoring task, which first scores all split points for a given sentence, and then recursively splits a span into two by picking a split point with the highest score in the current span. The reverse order of the splits is considered as the order of pruning in R2D2 encoder. Beside the bi-directional language model loss, we also optimize the parser by minimizing the KL distance between tree probabilities from parser and R2D2. Our experiments show that our Fast-R2D2 improves performance significantly in grammar induction and achieves competitive results in downstream classification tasks.
Creating meaningful art is often viewed as a uniquely human endeavor. A human artist needs a combination of unique skills, understanding, and genuine intention to create artworks that evoke deep feelings and emotions. In this paper, we introduce a multi-conditional Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) approach trained on large amounts of human paintings to synthesize realistic-looking paintings that emulate human art. Our approach is based on the StyleGAN neural network architecture, but incorporates a custom multi-conditional control mechanism that provides fine-granular control over characteristics of the generated paintings, e.g., with regard to the perceived emotion evoked in a spectator. For better control, we introduce the conditional truncation trick, which adapts the standard truncation trick for the conditional setting and diverse datasets. Finally, we develop a diverse set of evaluation techniques tailored to multi-conditional generation.