Personalization of autonomous vehicles (AV) may significantly increase trust, use, and acceptance. In particular, we hypothesize that the similarity of an AV's driving style compared to the end-user's driving style will have a major impact on end-user's willingness to use the AV. To investigate the impact of driving style on user acceptance, we 1) develop a data-driven approach to personalize driving style and 2) demonstrate that personalization significantly impacts attitudes towards AVs. Our approach learns a high-level model that tunes low-level controllers to ensure safe and personalized control of the AV. The key to our approach is learning an informative, personalized embedding that represents a user's driving style. Our framework is capable of calibrating the level of aggression so as to optimize driving style based upon driver preference. Across two human subject studies (n = 54), we first demonstrate our approach mimics the driving styles of end-users and can tune attributes of style (e.g., aggressiveness). Second, we investigate the factors (e.g., trust, personality etc.) that impact homophily, i.e. an individual's preference for a driving style similar to their own. We find that our approach generates driving styles consistent with end-user styles (p<.001) and participants rate our approach as more similar to their level of aggressiveness (p=.002). We find that personality (p<.001), perceived similarity (p<.001), and high-velocity driving style (p=.0031) significantly modulate the effect of homophily.
Different advertising messages work for different people. Machine learning can be an effective way to personalise climate communications. In this paper we use machine learning to reanalyse findings from a recent study, showing that online advertisements increased some people's belief in climate change while resulting in decreased belief in others. In particular, we show that the effect of the advertisements could change depending on people's age and ethnicity.