Large Language Models (LLMs), with their flexible generation abilities, can be powerful data sources in domains with few or no available corpora. However, problems like hallucinations and biases limit such applications. In this case study, we pick nutrition counselling, a domain lacking any public resource, and show that high-quality datasets can be gathered by combining LLMs, crowd-workers and nutrition experts. We first crowd-source and cluster a novel dataset of diet-related issues, then work with experts to prompt ChatGPT into producing related supportive text. Finally, we let the experts evaluate the safety of the generated text. We release HAI-coaching, the first expert-annotated nutrition counselling dataset containing ~2.4K dietary struggles from crowd workers, and ~97K related supportive texts generated by ChatGPT. Extensive analysis shows that ChatGPT while producing highly fluent and human-like text, also manifests harmful behaviours, especially in sensitive topics like mental health, making it unsuitable for unsupervised use.
Human-centricity is the core value behind the evolution of manufacturing towards Industry 5.0. Nevertheless, there is a lack of architecture that considers safety, trustworthiness, and human-centricity at its core. Therefore, we propose an architecture that integrates Artificial Intelligence (Active Learning, Forecasting, Explainable Artificial Intelligence), simulated reality, decision-making, and users' feedback, focusing on synergies between humans and machines. Furthermore, we align the proposed architecture with the Big Data Value Association Reference Architecture Model. Finally, we validate it on two use cases from real-world case studies.
The incompleteness of Knowledge Graphs (KGs) is a crucial issue affecting the quality of AI-based services. In the scholarly domain, KGs describing research publications typically lack important information, hindering our ability to analyse and predict research dynamics. In recent years, link prediction approaches based on Knowledge Graph Embedding models became the first aid for this issue. In this work, we present Trans4E, a novel embedding model that is particularly fit for KGs which include N to M relations with N$\gg$M. This is typical for KGs that categorize a large number of entities (e.g., research articles, patents, persons) according to a relatively small set of categories. Trans4E was applied on two large-scale knowledge graphs, the Academia/Industry DynAmics (AIDA) and Microsoft Academic Graph (MAG), for completing the information about Fields of Study (e.g., 'neural networks', 'machine learning', 'artificial intelligence'), and affiliation types (e.g., 'education', 'company', 'government'), improving the scope and accuracy of the resulting data. We evaluated our approach against alternative solutions on AIDA, MAG, and four other benchmarks (FB15k, FB15k-237, WN18, and WN18RR). Trans4E outperforms the other models when using low embedding dimensions and obtains competitive results in high dimensions.
Today, we are seeing an ever-increasing number of clinical notes that contain clinical results, images, and textual descriptions of patient's health state. All these data can be analyzed and employed to cater novel services that can help people and domain experts with their common healthcare tasks. However, many technologies such as Deep Learning and tools like Word Embeddings have started to be investigated only recently, and many challenges remain open when it comes to healthcare domain applications. To address these challenges, we propose the use of Deep Learning and Word Embeddings for identifying sixteen morbidity types within textual descriptions of clinical records. For this purpose, we have used a Deep Learning model based on Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) layers which can exploit state-of-the-art vector representations of data such as Word Embeddings. We have employed pre-trained Word Embeddings namely GloVe and Word2Vec, and our own Word Embeddings trained on the target domain. Furthermore, we have compared the performances of the deep learning approaches against the traditional tf-idf using Support Vector Machine and Multilayer perceptron (our baselines). From the obtained results it seems that the latter outperforms the combination of Deep Learning approaches using any word embeddings. Our preliminary results indicate that there are specific features that make the dataset biased in favour of traditional machine learning approaches.
* 12 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, SmartPhil 2020-First Workshop on Smart
Personal Health Interfaces, Associated to ACM IUI 2020
Empathetic response from the therapist is key to the success of clinical psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing. Previous work on computational modelling of empathy in motivational interviewing has focused on offline, session-level assessment of therapist empathy, where empathy captures all efforts that the therapist makes to understand the client's perspective and convey that understanding to the client. In this position paper, we propose a novel task of turn-level detection of client need for empathy. Concretely, we propose to leverage pre-trained language models and empathy-related general conversation corpora in a unique labeller-detector framework, where the labeller automatically annotates a motivational interviewing conversation corpus with empathy labels to train the detector that determines the need for therapist empathy. We also lay out our strategies of extending the detector with additional-input and multi-task setups to improve its detection and explainability.
* Accepted to ICMI '20 Companion: Companion Publication of the 2020
International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (SAMIH'20 Workshop)
WordNet lexical-database groups English words into sets of synonyms called "synsets." Synsets are utilized for several applications in the field of text-mining. However, they were also open to criticism because although, in reality, not all the members of a synset represent the meaning of that synset with the same degree, in practice, they are considered as members of the synset, identically. Thus, the fuzzy version of synsets, called fuzzy-synsets (or fuzzy word-sense classes) were proposed and studied. In this study, we discuss why (type-1) fuzzy synsets (T1 F-synsets) do not properly model the membership uncertainty, and propose an upgraded version of fuzzy synsets in which membership degrees of word-senses are represented by intervals, similar to what in Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Sets (IT2 FS) and discuss that IT2 FS theoretical framework is insufficient for analysis and design of such synsets, and propose a new concept, called Interval Probabilistic Fuzzy (IPF) sets. Then we present an algorithm for constructing the IPF synsets in any language, given a corpus and a word-sense-disambiguation system. Utilizing our algorithm and the open-American-online-corpus (OANC) and UKB word-sense-disambiguation, we constructed and published the IPF synsets of WordNet for English language.
There is a lack of a single architecture specification that addresses the needs of trusted and secure Artificial Intelligence systems with humans in the loop, such as human-centered manufacturing systems at the core of the evolution towards Industry 5.0. To realize this, we propose an architecture that integrates forecasts, Explainable Artificial Intelligence, supports collecting users' feedback, and uses Active Learning and Simulated Reality to enhance forecasts and provide decision-making recommendations. The architecture security is addressed as a general concern. We align the proposed architecture with the Big Data Value Association Reference Architecture Model. We tailor it for the domain of demand forecasting and validate it on a real-world case study.
The continuous growth of scientific literature brings innovations and, at the same time, raises new challenges. One of them is related to the fact that its analysis has become difficult due to the high volume of published papers for which manual effort for annotations and management is required. Novel technological infrastructures are needed to help researchers, research policy makers, and companies to time-efficiently browse, analyse, and forecast scientific research. Knowledge graphs i.e., large networks of entities and relationships, have proved to be effective solution in this space. Scientific knowledge graphs focus on the scholarly domain and typically contain metadata describing research publications such as authors, venues, organizations, research topics, and citations. However, the current generation of knowledge graphs lacks of an explicit representation of the knowledge presented in the research papers. As such, in this paper, we present a new architecture that takes advantage of Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning methods for extracting entities and relationships from research publications and integrates them in a large-scale knowledge graph. Within this research work, we i) tackle the challenge of knowledge extraction by employing several state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing and Text Mining tools, ii) describe an approach for integrating entities and relationships generated by these tools, iii) show the advantage of such an hybrid system over alternative approaches, and vi) as a chosen use case, we generated a scientific knowledge graph including 109,105 triples, extracted from 26,827 abstracts of papers within the Semantic Web domain. As our approach is general and can be applied to any domain, we expect that it can facilitate the management, analysis, dissemination, and processing of scientific knowledge.
* Accepted for publication in Future Generation Computer Systems
journal - Special Issue on Machine Learning and Knowledge Graphs
WordNet-like Lexical Databases (WLDs) group English words into sets of synonyms called "synsets." Although the standard WLDs are being used in many successful Text-Mining applications, they have the limitation that word-senses are considered to represent the meaning associated to their corresponding synsets, to the same degree, which is not generally true. In order to overcome this limitation, several fuzzy versions of synsets have been proposed. A common trait of these studies is that, to the best of our knowledge, they do not aim to produce fuzzified versions of the existing WLD's, but build new WLDs from scratch, which has limited the attention received from the Text-Mining community, many of whose resources and applications are based on the existing WLDs. In this study, we present an algorithm for constructing fuzzy versions of WLDs of any language, given a corpus of documents and a word-sense disambiguation (WSD) system for that language. Then, using the Open-American-National-Corpus and UKB WSD as algorithm inputs, we construct and publish online the fuzzified version of English WordNet (FWN). We also propose a theoretical (mathematical) proof of the validity of its results.