Diffusion models have recently been increasingly applied to temporal data such as video, fluid mechanics simulations, or climate data. These methods generally treat subsequent frames equally regarding the amount of noise in the diffusion process. This paper explores Rolling Diffusion: a new approach that uses a sliding window denoising process. It ensures that the diffusion process progressively corrupts through time by assigning more noise to frames that appear later in a sequence, reflecting greater uncertainty about the future as the generation process unfolds. Empirically, we show that when the temporal dynamics are complex, Rolling Diffusion is superior to standard diffusion. In particular, this result is demonstrated in a video prediction task using the Kinetics-600 video dataset and in a chaotic fluid dynamics forecasting experiment.
Currently, applying diffusion models in pixel space of high resolution images is difficult. Instead, existing approaches focus on diffusion in lower dimensional spaces (latent diffusion), or have multiple super-resolution levels of generation referred to as cascades. The downside is that these approaches add additional complexity to the diffusion framework. This paper aims to improve denoising diffusion for high resolution images while keeping the model as simple as possible. The paper is centered around the research question: How can one train a standard denoising diffusion models on high resolution images, and still obtain performance comparable to these alternate approaches? The four main findings are: 1) the noise schedule should be adjusted for high resolution images, 2) It is sufficient to scale only a particular part of the architecture, 3) dropout should be added at specific locations in the architecture, and 4) downsampling is an effective strategy to avoid high resolution feature maps. Combining these simple yet effective techniques, we achieve state-of-the-art on image generation among diffusion models without sampling modifiers on ImageNet.
Classifier-free guided diffusion models have recently been shown to be highly effective at high-resolution image generation, and they have been widely used in large-scale diffusion frameworks including DALL-E 2, GLIDE and Imagen. However, a downside of classifier-free guided diffusion models is that they are computationally expensive at inference time since they require evaluating two diffusion models, a class-conditional model and an unconditional model, hundreds of times. To deal with this limitation, we propose an approach to distilling classifier-free guided diffusion models into models that are fast to sample from: Given a pre-trained classifier-free guided model, we first learn a single model to match the output of the combined conditional and unconditional models, and then progressively distill that model to a diffusion model that requires much fewer sampling steps. On ImageNet 64x64 and CIFAR-10, our approach is able to generate images visually comparable to that of the original model using as few as 4 sampling steps, achieving FID/IS scores comparable to that of the original model while being up to 256 times faster to sample from.
We present Imagen Video, a text-conditional video generation system based on a cascade of video diffusion models. Given a text prompt, Imagen Video generates high definition videos using a base video generation model and a sequence of interleaved spatial and temporal video super-resolution models. We describe how we scale up the system as a high definition text-to-video model including design decisions such as the choice of fully-convolutional temporal and spatial super-resolution models at certain resolutions, and the choice of the v-parameterization of diffusion models. In addition, we confirm and transfer findings from previous work on diffusion-based image generation to the video generation setting. Finally, we apply progressive distillation to our video models with classifier-free guidance for fast, high quality sampling. We find Imagen Video not only capable of generating videos of high fidelity, but also having a high degree of controllability and world knowledge, including the ability to generate diverse videos and text animations in various artistic styles and with 3D object understanding. See https://imagen.research.google/video/ for samples.
Recently, Rissanen et al., (2022) have presented a new type of diffusion process for generative modeling based on heat dissipation, or blurring, as an alternative to isotropic Gaussian diffusion. Here, we show that blurring can equivalently be defined through a Gaussian diffusion process with non-isotropic noise. In making this connection, we bridge the gap between inverse heat dissipation and denoising diffusion, and we shed light on the inductive bias that results from this modeling choice. Finally, we propose a generalized class of diffusion models that offers the best of both standard Gaussian denoising diffusion and inverse heat dissipation, which we call Blurring Diffusion Models.
Classifier guidance is a recently introduced method to trade off mode coverage and sample fidelity in conditional diffusion models post training, in the same spirit as low temperature sampling or truncation in other types of generative models. Classifier guidance combines the score estimate of a diffusion model with the gradient of an image classifier and thereby requires training an image classifier separate from the diffusion model. It also raises the question of whether guidance can be performed without a classifier. We show that guidance can be indeed performed by a pure generative model without such a classifier: in what we call classifier-free guidance, we jointly train a conditional and an unconditional diffusion model, and we combine the resulting conditional and unconditional score estimates to attain a trade-off between sample quality and diversity similar to that obtained using classifier guidance.
We describe a novel lossy compression approach called DiffC which is based on unconditional diffusion generative models. Unlike modern compression schemes which rely on transform coding and quantization to restrict the transmitted information, DiffC relies on the efficient communication of pixels corrupted by Gaussian noise. We implement a proof of concept and find that it works surprisingly well despite the lack of an encoder transform, outperforming the state-of-the-art generative compression method HiFiC on ImageNet 64x64. DiffC only uses a single model to encode and denoise corrupted pixels at arbitrary bitrates. The approach further provides support for progressive coding, that is, decoding from partial bit streams. We perform a rate-distortion analysis to gain a deeper understanding of its performance, providing analytical results for multivariate Gaussian data as well as initial results for general distributions. Furthermore, we show that a flow-based reconstruction achieves a 3 dB gain over ancestral sampling at high bitrates.
We present Imagen, a text-to-image diffusion model with an unprecedented degree of photorealism and a deep level of language understanding. Imagen builds on the power of large transformer language models in understanding text and hinges on the strength of diffusion models in high-fidelity image generation. Our key discovery is that generic large language models (e.g. T5), pretrained on text-only corpora, are surprisingly effective at encoding text for image synthesis: increasing the size of the language model in Imagen boosts both sample fidelity and image-text alignment much more than increasing the size of the image diffusion model. Imagen achieves a new state-of-the-art FID score of 7.27 on the COCO dataset, without ever training on COCO, and human raters find Imagen samples to be on par with the COCO data itself in image-text alignment. To assess text-to-image models in greater depth, we introduce DrawBench, a comprehensive and challenging benchmark for text-to-image models. With DrawBench, we compare Imagen with recent methods including VQ-GAN+CLIP, Latent Diffusion Models, and DALL-E 2, and find that human raters prefer Imagen over other models in side-by-side comparisons, both in terms of sample quality and image-text alignment. See https://imagen.research.google/ for an overview of the results.
Generating temporally coherent high fidelity video is an important milestone in generative modeling research. We make progress towards this milestone by proposing a diffusion model for video generation that shows very promising initial results. Our model is a natural extension of the standard image diffusion architecture, and it enables jointly training from image and video data, which we find to reduce the variance of minibatch gradients and speed up optimization. To generate long and higher resolution videos we introduce a new conditional sampling technique for spatial and temporal video extension that performs better than previously proposed methods. We present the first results on a large text-conditioned video generation task, as well as state-of-the-art results on an established unconditional video generation benchmark. Supplementary material is available at https://video-diffusion.github.io/
Diffusion models have recently shown great promise for generative modeling, outperforming GANs on perceptual quality and autoregressive models at density estimation. A remaining downside is their slow sampling time: generating high quality samples takes many hundreds or thousands of model evaluations. Here we make two contributions to help eliminate this downside: First, we present new parameterizations of diffusion models that provide increased stability when using few sampling steps. Second, we present a method to distill a trained deterministic diffusion sampler, using many steps, into a new diffusion model that takes half as many sampling steps. We then keep progressively applying this distillation procedure to our model, halving the number of required sampling steps each time. On standard image generation benchmarks like CIFAR-10, ImageNet, and LSUN, we start out with state-of-the-art samplers taking as many as 8192 steps, and are able to distill down to models taking as few as 4 steps without losing much perceptual quality; achieving, for example, a FID of 3.0 on CIFAR-10 in 4 steps. Finally, we show that the full progressive distillation procedure does not take more time than it takes to train the original model, thus representing an efficient solution for generative modeling using diffusion at both train and test time.