The use of machine learning for material property prediction and discovery has traditionally centered on graph neural networks that incorporate the geometric configuration of all atoms. However, in practice not all this information may be readily available, e.g.~when evaluating the potentially unknown binding of adsorbates to catalyst. In this paper, we investigate whether it is possible to predict a system's relaxed energy in the OC20 dataset while ignoring the relative position of the adsorbate with respect to the electro-catalyst. We consider SchNet, DimeNet++ and FAENet as base architectures and measure the impact of four modifications on model performance: removing edges in the input graph, pooling independent representations, not sharing the backbone weights and using an attention mechanism to propagate non-geometric relative information. We find that while removing binding site information impairs accuracy as expected, modified models are able to predict relaxed energies with remarkably decent MAE. Our work suggests future research directions in accelerated materials discovery where information on reactant configurations can be reduced or altogether omitted.
Accelerating material discovery holds the potential to greatly help mitigate the climate crisis. Discovering new solid-state crystals such as electrocatalysts, ionic conductors or photovoltaics can have a crucial impact, for instance, in improving the efficiency of renewable energy production and storage. In this paper, we introduce Crystal-GFlowNet, a generative model of crystal structures that sequentially samples a crystal's composition, space group and lattice parameters. This domain-inspired approach enables the flexible incorporation of physical and geometrical constraints, as well as the use of any available predictive model of a desired property as an objective function. We evaluate the capabilities of Crystal-GFlowNet by using as objective the formation energy of a crystal structure, as predicted by a new proxy model trained on MatBench. The results demonstrate that Crystal-GFlowNet is able to sample diverse crystals with low formation energy.
In the last decades, the capacity to generate large amounts of data in science and engineering applications has been growing steadily. Meanwhile, the progress in machine learning has turned it into a suitable tool to process and utilise the available data. Nonetheless, many relevant scientific and engineering problems present challenges where current machine learning methods cannot yet efficiently leverage the available data and resources. For example, in scientific discovery, we are often faced with the problem of exploring very large, high-dimensional spaces, where querying a high fidelity, black-box objective function is very expensive. Progress in machine learning methods that can efficiently tackle such problems would help accelerate currently crucial areas such as drug and materials discovery. In this paper, we propose the use of GFlowNets for multi-fidelity active learning, where multiple approximations of the black-box function are available at lower fidelity and cost. GFlowNets are recently proposed methods for amortised probabilistic inference that have proven efficient for exploring large, high-dimensional spaces and can hence be practical in the multi-fidelity setting too. Here, we describe our algorithm for multi-fidelity active learning with GFlowNets and evaluate its performance in both well-studied synthetic tasks and practically relevant applications of molecular discovery. Our results show that multi-fidelity active learning with GFlowNets can efficiently leverage the availability of multiple oracles with different costs and fidelities to accelerate scientific discovery and engineering design.
Climate simulations are essential in guiding our understanding of climate change and responding to its effects. However, it is computationally expensive to resolve complex climate processes at high spatial resolution. As one way to speed up climate simulations, neural networks have been used to downscale climate variables from fast-running low-resolution simulations, but high-resolution training data are often unobtainable or scarce, greatly limiting accuracy. In this work, we propose a downscaling method based on the Fourier neural operator. It trains with data of a small upsampling factor and then can zero-shot downscale its input to arbitrary unseen high resolution. Evaluated both on ERA5 climate model data and on the Navier-Stokes equation solution data, our downscaling model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art convolutional and generative adversarial downscaling models, both in standard single-resolution downscaling and in zero-shot generalization to higher upsampling factors. Furthermore, we show that our method also outperforms state-of-the-art data-driven partial differential equation solvers on Navier-Stokes equations. Overall, our work bridges the gap between simulation of a physical process and interpolation of low-resolution output, showing that it is possible to combine both approaches and significantly improve upon each other.
* Presented at the ICLR 2023 workshop on "Tackling Climate Change with
Machine learning (ML) requires using energy to carry out computations during the model training process. The generation of this energy comes with an environmental cost in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, depending on quantity used and the energy source. Existing research on the environmental impacts of ML has been limited to analyses covering a small number of models and does not adequately represent the diversity of ML models and tasks. In the current study, we present a survey of the carbon emissions of 95 ML models across time and different tasks in natural language processing and computer vision. We analyze them in terms of the energy sources used, the amount of CO2 emissions produced, how these emissions evolve across time and how they relate to model performance. We conclude with a discussion regarding the carbon footprint of our field and propose the creation of a centralized repository for reporting and tracking these emissions.
Tackling the most pressing problems for humanity, such as the climate crisis and the threat of global pandemics, requires accelerating the pace of scientific discovery. While science has traditionally relied on trial and error and even serendipity to a large extent, the last few decades have seen a surge of data-driven scientific discoveries. However, in order to truly leverage large-scale data sets and high-throughput experimental setups, machine learning methods will need to be further improved and better integrated in the scientific discovery pipeline. A key challenge for current machine learning methods in this context is the efficient exploration of very large search spaces, which requires techniques for estimating reducible (epistemic) uncertainty and generating sets of diverse and informative experiments to perform. This motivated a new probabilistic machine learning framework called GFlowNets, which can be applied in the modeling, hypotheses generation and experimental design stages of the experimental science loop. GFlowNets learn to sample from a distribution given indirectly by a reward function corresponding to an unnormalized probability, which enables sampling diverse, high-reward candidates. GFlowNets can also be used to form efficient and amortized Bayesian posterior estimators for causal models conditioned on the already acquired experimental data. Having such posterior models can then provide estimators of epistemic uncertainty and information gain that can drive an experimental design policy. Altogether, here we will argue that GFlowNets can become a valuable tool for AI-driven scientific discovery, especially in scenarios of very large candidate spaces where we have access to cheap but inaccurate measurements or to expensive but accurate measurements. This is a common setting in the context of drug and material discovery, which we use as examples throughout the paper.
In many applications of machine learning, like drug discovery and material design, the goal is to generate candidates that simultaneously maximize a set of objectives. As these objectives are often conflicting, there is no single candidate that simultaneously maximizes all objectives, but rather a set of Pareto-optimal candidates where one objective cannot be improved without worsening another. Moreover, in practice, these objectives are often under-specified, making the diversity of candidates a key consideration. The existing multi-objective optimization methods focus predominantly on covering the Pareto front, failing to capture diversity in the space of candidates. Motivated by the success of GFlowNets for generation of diverse candidates in a single objective setting, in this paper we consider Multi-Objective GFlowNets (MOGFNs). MOGFNs consist of a novel Conditional GFlowNet which models a family of single-objective sub-problems derived by decomposing the multi-objective optimization problem. Our work is the first to empirically demonstrate conditional GFlowNets. Through a series of experiments on synthetic and benchmark tasks, we empirically demonstrate that MOGFNs outperform existing methods in terms of Hypervolume, R2-distance and candidate diversity. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of MOGFNs over existing methods in active learning settings. Finally, we supplement our empirical results with a careful analysis of each component of MOGFNs.
Inverse design of short single-stranded RNA and DNA sequences (aptamers) is the task of finding sequences that satisfy a set of desired criteria. Relevant criteria may be, for example, the presence of specific folding motifs, binding to molecular ligands, sensing properties, etc. Most practical approaches to aptamer design identify a small set of promising candidate sequences using high-throughput experiments (e.g. SELEX), and then optimize performance by introducing only minor modifications to the empirically found candidates. Sequences that possess the desired properties but differ drastically in chemical composition will add diversity to the search space and facilitate the discovery of useful nucleic acid aptamers. Systematic diversification protocols are needed. Here we propose to use an unsupervised machine learning model known as the Potts model to discover new, useful sequences with controllable sequence diversity. We start by training a Potts model using the maximum entropy principle on a small set of empirically identified sequences unified by a common feature. To generate new candidate sequences with a controllable degree of diversity, we take advantage of the model's spectral feature: an energy bandgap separating sequences that are similar to the training set from those that are distinct. By controlling the Potts energy range that is sampled, we generate sequences that are distinct from the training set yet still likely to have the encoded features. To demonstrate performance, we apply our approach to design diverse pools of sequences with specified secondary structure motifs in 30-mer RNA and DNA aptamers.
The availability of reliable, high-resolution climate and weather data is important to inform long-term decisions on climate adaptation and mitigation and to guide rapid responses to extreme events. Forecasting models are limited by computational costs and therefore often predict quantities at a coarse spatial resolution. Statistical downscaling can provide an efficient method of upsampling low-resolution data. In this field, deep learning has been applied successfully, often using methods from the super-resolution domain in computer vision. Despite often achieving visually compelling results, such models often violate conservation laws when predicting physical variables. In order to conserve important physical quantities, we develop methods that guarantee physical constraints are satisfied by a deep downscaling model while also increasing their performance according to traditional metrics. We introduce two ways of constraining the network: A renormalization layer added to the end of the neural network and a successive approach that scales with increasing upsampling factors. We show the applicability of our methods across different popular architectures and upsampling factors using ERA5 reanalysis data.
Climate change is a major threat to humanity, and the actions required to prevent its catastrophic consequences include changes in both policy-making and individual behaviour. However, taking action requires understanding the effects of climate change, even though they may seem abstract and distant. Projecting the potential consequences of extreme climate events such as flooding in familiar places can help make the abstract impacts of climate change more concrete and encourage action. As part of a larger initiative to build a website that projects extreme climate events onto user-chosen photos, we present our solution to simulate photo-realistic floods on authentic images. To address this complex task in the absence of suitable training data, we propose ClimateGAN, a model that leverages both simulated and real data for unsupervised domain adaptation and conditional image generation. In this paper, we describe the details of our framework, thoroughly evaluate components of our architecture and demonstrate that our model is capable of robustly generating photo-realistic flooding.