To mitigate global warming, greenhouse gas sources need to be resolved at a high spatial resolution and monitored in time to ensure the reduction and ultimately elimination of the pollution source. However, the complexity of computation in resolving high-resolution wind fields left the simulations impractical to test different time lengths and model configurations. This study presents a preliminary development of a physics-informed super-resolution (SR) generative adversarial network (GAN) that super-resolves the three-dimensional (3D) low-resolution wind fields by upscaling x9 times. We develop a pixel-wise self-attention (PWA) module that learns 3D weather dynamics via a self-attention computation followed by a 2D convolution. We also employ a loss term that regularizes the self-attention map during pretraining, capturing the vertical convection process from input wind data. The new PWA SR-GAN shows the high-fidelity super-resolved 3D wind data, learns a wind structure at the high-frequency domain, and reduces the computational cost of a high-resolution wind simulation by x89.7 times.
Significant progress in the development of highly adaptable and reusable Artificial Intelligence (AI) models is expected to have a significant impact on Earth science and remote sensing. Foundation models are pre-trained on large unlabeled datasets through self-supervision, and then fine-tuned for various downstream tasks with small labeled datasets. This paper introduces a first-of-a-kind framework for the efficient pre-training and fine-tuning of foundational models on extensive geospatial data. We have utilized this framework to create Prithvi, a transformer-based geospatial foundational model pre-trained on more than 1TB of multispectral satellite imagery from the Harmonized Landsat-Sentinel 2 (HLS) dataset. Our study demonstrates the efficacy of our framework in successfully fine-tuning Prithvi to a range of Earth observation tasks that have not been tackled by previous work on foundation models involving multi-temporal cloud gap imputation, flood mapping, wildfire scar segmentation, and multi-temporal crop segmentation. Our experiments show that the pre-trained model accelerates the fine-tuning process compared to leveraging randomly initialized weights. In addition, pre-trained Prithvi compares well against the state-of-the-art, e.g., outperforming a conditional GAN model in multi-temporal cloud imputation by up to 5pp (or 5.7%) in the structural similarity index. Finally, due to the limited availability of labeled data in the field of Earth observation, we gradually reduce the quantity of available labeled data for refining the model to evaluate data efficiency and demonstrate that data can be decreased significantly without affecting the model's accuracy. The pre-trained 100 million parameter model and corresponding fine-tuning workflows have been released publicly as open source contributions to the global Earth sciences community through Hugging Face.
Climate simulations are essential in guiding our understanding of climate change and responding to its effects. However, it is computationally expensive to resolve complex climate processes at high spatial resolution. As one way to speed up climate simulations, neural networks have been used to downscale climate variables from fast-running low-resolution simulations, but high-resolution training data are often unobtainable or scarce, greatly limiting accuracy. In this work, we propose a downscaling method based on the Fourier neural operator. It trains with data of a small upsampling factor and then can zero-shot downscale its input to arbitrary unseen high resolution. Evaluated both on ERA5 climate model data and on the Navier-Stokes equation solution data, our downscaling model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art convolutional and generative adversarial downscaling models, both in standard single-resolution downscaling and in zero-shot generalization to higher upsampling factors. Furthermore, we show that our method also outperforms state-of-the-art data-driven partial differential equation solvers on Navier-Stokes equations. Overall, our work bridges the gap between simulation of a physical process and interpolation of low-resolution output, showing that it is possible to combine both approaches and significantly improve upon each other.
* Presented at the ICLR 2023 workshop on "Tackling Climate Change with
The availability of reliable, high-resolution climate and weather data is important to inform long-term decisions on climate adaptation and mitigation and to guide rapid responses to extreme events. Forecasting models are limited by computational costs and therefore often predict quantities at a coarse spatial resolution. Statistical downscaling can provide an efficient method of upsampling low-resolution data. In this field, deep learning has been applied successfully, often using methods from the super-resolution domain in computer vision. Despite often achieving visually compelling results, such models often violate conservation laws when predicting physical variables. In order to conserve important physical quantities, we develop methods that guarantee physical constraints are satisfied by a deep downscaling model while also increasing their performance according to traditional metrics. We introduce two ways of constraining the network: A renormalization layer added to the end of the neural network and a successive approach that scales with increasing upsampling factors. We show the applicability of our methods across different popular architectures and upsampling factors using ERA5 reanalysis data.
An impact of climate change is the increase in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. However, confidently predicting the likelihood of extreme precipitation at seasonal scales remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we present an approach to forecasting the quantiles of the maximum daily precipitation in each week up to six months ahead using the temporal fusion transformer (TFT) model. Through experiments in two regions, we compare TFT predictions with those of two baselines: climatology and a calibrated ECMWF SEAS5 ensemble forecast (S5). Our results show that, in terms of quantile risk at six month lead time, the TFT predictions significantly outperform those from S5 and show an overall small improvement compared to climatology. The TFT also responds positively to departures from normal that climatology cannot.
Extreme weather events have an enormous impact on society and are expected to become more frequent and severe with climate change. In this context, resilience planning becomes crucial for risk mitigation and coping with these extreme events. Machine learning techniques can play a critical role in resilience planning through the generation of realistic extreme weather event scenarios that can be used to evaluate possible mitigation actions. This paper proposes a modular framework that relies on interchangeable components to produce extreme weather event scenarios. We discuss possible alternatives for each of the components and show initial results comparing two approaches on the task of generating precipitation scenarios.
Almost all work to understand Earth's subsurface on a large scale relies on the interpretation of seismic surveys by experts who segment the survey (usually a cube) into layers; a process that is very time demanding. In this paper, we present a new deep neural network architecture specially designed to semantically segment seismic images with a minimal amount of training data. To achieve this, we make use of a transposed residual unit that replaces the traditional dilated convolution for the decode block. Also, instead of using a predefined shape for up-scaling, our network learns all the steps to upscale the features from the encoder. We train our neural network using the Penobscot 3D dataset; a real seismic dataset acquired offshore Nova Scotia, Canada. We compare our approach with two well-known deep neural network topologies: Fully Convolutional Network and U-Net. In our experiments, we show that our approach can achieve more than 99 percent of the mean intersection over union (mIOU) metric, outperforming the existing topologies. Moreover, our qualitative results show that the obtained model can produce masks very close to human interpretation with very little discontinuity.
Machine learning and, more specifically, deep learning algorithms have seen remarkable growth in their popularity and usefulness in the last years. This is arguably due to three main factors: powerful computers, new techniques to train deeper networks and larger datasets. Although the first two are readily available in modern computers and ML libraries, the last one remains a challenge for many domains. It is a fact that big data is a reality in almost all fields nowadays, and geosciences are not an exception. However, to achieve the success of general-purpose applications such as ImageNet - for which there are +14 million labeled images for 1000 target classes - we not only need more data, we need more high-quality labeled data. When it comes to the Oil&Gas industry, confidentiality issues hamper even more the sharing of datasets. In this work, we present the Netherlands interpretation dataset, a contribution to the development of machine learning in seismic interpretation. The Netherlands F3 dataset acquisition was carried out in the North Sea, Netherlands offshore. The data is publicly available and contains pos-stack data, 8 horizons and well logs of 4 wells. For the purposes of our machine learning tasks, the original dataset was reinterpreted, generating 9 horizons separating different seismic facies intervals. The interpreted horizons were used to generate approximatelly 190,000 labeled images for inlines and crosslines. Finally, we present two deep learning applications in which the proposed dataset was employed and produced compelling results.