In the upcoming decade, deep learning may revolutionize the natural sciences, enhancing our capacity to model and predict natural occurrences. This could herald a new era of scientific exploration, bringing significant advancements across sectors from drug development to renewable energy. To answer this call, we present DeepSpeed4Science initiative (deepspeed4science.ai) which aims to build unique capabilities through AI system technology innovations to help domain experts to unlock today's biggest science mysteries. By leveraging DeepSpeed's current technology pillars (training, inference and compression) as base technology enablers, DeepSpeed4Science will create a new set of AI system technologies tailored for accelerating scientific discoveries by addressing their unique complexity beyond the common technical approaches used for accelerating generic large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we showcase the early progress we made with DeepSpeed4Science in addressing two of the critical system challenges in structural biology research.
Text-to-image generation (TTI) refers to the usage of models that could process text input and generate high fidelity images based on text descriptions. Text-to-image generation using neural networks could be traced back to the emergence of Generative Adversial Network (GAN), followed by the autoregressive Transformer. Diffusion models are one prominent type of generative model used for the generation of images through the systematic introduction of noises with repeating steps. As an effect of the impressive results of diffusion models on image synthesis, it has been cemented as the major image decoder used by text-to-image models and brought text-to-image generation to the forefront of machine-learning (ML) research. In the era of large models, scaling up model size and the integration with large language models have further improved the performance of TTI models, resulting the generation result nearly indistinguishable from real-world images, revolutionizing the way we retrieval images. Our explorative study has incentivised us to think that there are further ways of scaling text-to-image models with the combination of innovative model architectures and prediction enhancement techniques. We have divided the work of this survey into five main sections wherein we detail the frameworks of major literature in order to delve into the different types of text-to-image generation methods. Following this we provide a detailed comparison and critique of these methods and offer possible pathways of improvement for future work. In the future work, we argue that TTI development could yield impressive productivity improvements for creation, particularly in the context of the AIGC era, and could be extended to more complex tasks such as video generation and 3D generation.