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"cancer detection": models, code, and papers

Gastric Cancer Detection from X-ray Images Using Effective Data Augmentation and Hard Boundary Box Training

Aug 18, 2021
Hideaki Okamoto, Takakiyo Nomura, Kazuhito Nabeshima, Jun Hashimoto, Hitoshi Iyatomi

X-ray examination is suitable for screening of gastric cancer. Compared to endoscopy, which can only be performed by doctors, X-ray imaging can also be performed by radiographers, and thus, can treat more patients. However, the diagnostic accuracy of gastric radiographs is as low as 85%. To address this problem, highly accurate and quantitative automated diagnosis using machine learning needs to be performed. This paper proposes a diagnostic support method for detecting gastric cancer sites from X-ray images with high accuracy. The two new technical proposal of the method are (1) stochastic functional gastric image augmentation (sfGAIA), and (2) hard boundary box training (HBBT). The former is a probabilistic enhancement of gastric folds in X-ray images based on medical knowledge, whereas the latter is a recursive retraining technique to reduce false positives. We use 4,724 gastric radiographs of 145 patients in clinical practice and evaluate the cancer detection performance of the method in a patient-based five-group cross-validation. The proposed sfGAIA and HBBT significantly enhance the performance of the EfficientDet-D7 network by 5.9% in terms of the F1-score, and our screening method reaches a practical screening capability for gastric cancer (F1: 57.8%, recall: 90.2%, precision: 42.5%).

* 9 pages, 6 figures 
  
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Colorectal Polyp Detection in Real-world Scenario: Design and Experiment Study

Jan 11, 2021
Xinzi Sun, Dechun Wang, Chenxi Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, Zinan Xiong, Yu Cao, Benyuan Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Shuijiao Chen

Colorectal polyps are abnormal tissues growing on the intima of the colon or rectum with a high risk of developing into colorectal cancer, the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Early detection and removal of colon polyps via colonoscopy have proved to be an effective approach to prevent colorectal cancer. Recently, various CNN-based computer-aided systems have been developed to help physicians detect polyps. However, these systems do not perform well in real-world colonoscopy operations due to the significant difference between images in a real colonoscopy and those in the public datasets. Unlike the well-chosen clear images with obvious polyps in the public datasets, images from a colonoscopy are often blurry and contain various artifacts such as fluid, debris, bubbles, reflection, specularity, contrast, saturation, and medical instruments, with a wide variety of polyps of different sizes, shapes, and textures. All these factors pose a significant challenge to effective polyp detection in a colonoscopy. To this end, we collect a private dataset that contains 7,313 images from 224 complete colonoscopy procedures. This dataset represents realistic operation scenarios and thus can be used to better train the models and evaluate a system's performance in practice. We propose an integrated system architecture to address the unique challenges for polyp detection. Extensive experiments results show that our system can effectively detect polyps in a colonoscopy with excellent performance in real time.

* 8 pages 
  
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Oral cancer detection and interpretation: Deep multiple instance learning versus conventional deep single instance learning

Feb 03, 2022
Nadezhda Koriakina, Nataša Sladoje, Vladimir Bašić, Joakim Lindblad

The current medical standard for setting an oral cancer (OC) diagnosis is histological examination of a tissue sample from the oral cavity. This process is time consuming and more invasive than an alternative approach of acquiring a brush sample followed by cytological analysis. Skilled cytotechnologists are able to detect changes due to malignancy, however, to introduce this approach into clinical routine is associated with challenges such as a lack of experts and labour-intensive work. To design a trustworthy OC detection system that would assist cytotechnologists, we are interested in AI-based methods that reliably can detect cancer given only per-patient labels (minimizing annotation bias), and also provide information on which cells are most relevant for the diagnosis (enabling supervision and understanding). We, therefore, perform a comparison of a conventional single instance learning (SIL) approach and a modern multiple instance learning (MIL) method suitable for OC detection and interpretation, utilizing three different neural network architectures. To facilitate systematic evaluation of the considered approaches, we introduce a synthetic PAP-QMNIST dataset, that serves as a model of OC data, while offering access to per-instance ground truth. Our study indicates that on PAP-QMNIST, the SIL performs better, on average, than the MIL approach. Performance at the bag level on real-world cytological data is similar for both methods, yet the single instance approach performs better on average. Visual examination by cytotechnologist indicates that the methods manage to identify cells which deviate from normality, including malignant cells as well as those suspicious for dysplasia. We share the code as open source at https://github.com/MIDA-group/OralCancerMILvsSIL

  
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Report-Guided Automatic Lesion Annotation for Deep Learning-Based Prostate Cancer Detection in bpMRI

Dec 09, 2021
Joeran S. Bosma, Anindo Saha, Matin Hosseinzadeh, Ilse Slootweg, Maarten de Rooij, Henkjan Huisman

Deep learning-based diagnostic performance increases with more annotated data, but manual annotation is a bottleneck in most fields. Experts evaluate diagnostic images during clinical routine, and write their findings in reports. Automatic annotation based on clinical reports could overcome the manual labelling bottleneck. We hypothesise that dense annotations for detection tasks can be generated using model predictions, guided by sparse information from these reports. To demonstrate efficacy, we generated clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) annotations, guided by the number of clinically significant findings in the radiology reports. We included 7,756 prostate MRI examinations, of which 3,050 were manually annotated and 4,706 were automatically annotated. We evaluated the automatic annotation quality on the manually annotated subset: our score extraction correctly identified the number of csPCa lesions for $99.3\%$ of the reports and our csPCa segmentation model correctly localised $83.8 \pm 1.1\%$ of the lesions. We evaluated prostate cancer detection performance on 300 exams from an external centre with histopathology-confirmed ground truth. Augmenting the training set with automatically labelled exams improved patient-based diagnostic area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from $88.1\pm 1.1\%$ to $89.8\pm 1.0\%$ ($P = 1.2 \cdot 10^{-4}$) and improved lesion-based sensitivity at one false positive per case from $79.2 \pm 2.8\%$ to $85.4 \pm 1.9\%$ ($P<10^{-4}$), with $mean \pm std.$ over 15 independent runs. This improved performance demonstrates the feasibility of our report-guided automatic annotations. Source code is made publicly available at https://github.com/DIAGNijmegen/Report-Guided-Annotation. Best csPCa detection algorithm is made available at https://grand-challenge.org/algorithms/bpmri-cspca-detection-report-guided-annotations/.

  
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Unsupervised Learning of Deep-Learned Features from Breast Cancer Images

Jun 21, 2020
Sanghoon Lee, Colton Farley, Simon Shim, Yanjun Zhao, Wookjin Choi, Wook-Sung Yoo

Detecting cancer manually in whole slide images requires significant time and effort on the laborious process. Recent advances in whole slide image analysis have stimulated the growth and development of machine learning-based approaches that improve the efficiency and effectiveness in the diagnosis of cancer diseases. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised learning approach for detecting cancer in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) whole slide images. The proposed method is fully automated and does not require human involvement during the unsupervised learning procedure. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for cancer detection in BRCA and show how the machine can choose the most appropriate clusters during the unsupervised learning procedure. Moreover, we present a prototype application that enables users to select relevant groups mapping all regions related to the groups in whole slide images.

* 7 pages for IEEE BIBE 
  
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End-to-end Prostate Cancer Detection in bpMRI via 3D CNNs: Effect of Attention Mechanisms, Clinical Priori and Decoupled False Positive Reduction

Jan 18, 2021
Anindo Saha, Matin Hosseinzadeh, Henkjan Huisman

We present a novel multi-stage 3D computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) model for automated localization of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in bi-parametric MR imaging (bpMRI). State-of-the-art attention mechanisms drive its detection network, which aims to accurately discriminate csPCa lesions from indolent cancer and the wide range of benign pathology that can afflict the prostate gland. In parallel, a decoupled residual classifier is used to achieve consistent false positive reduction, without sacrificing high detection sensitivity or computational efficiency. Furthermore, a probabilistic anatomical prior, which captures the spatial prevalence of csPCa and its zonal distinction, is computed and encoded into the CNN architecture to guide model generalization with domain-specific clinical knowledge. For 486 institutional testing scans, the 3D CAD system achieves $83.69\pm5.22\%$ and $93.19\pm2.96\%$ detection sensitivity at 0.50 and 1.46 false positive(s) per patient, respectively, along with $0.882$ AUROC in patient-based diagnosis $-$significantly outperforming four baseline architectures (USEResNet, UNet++, nnU-Net, Attention U-Net). For 296 external testing scans, the ensembled CAD system shares moderate agreement with a consensus of expert radiologists ($76.69\%$; $kappa=0.511$) and independent pathologists ($81.08\%$; $kappa=0.559$); demonstrating a strong ability to localize histologically-confirmed malignancies and generalize beyond the radiologically-estimated annotations of the 1950 training-validation cases used in this study.

* Under Review at MedIA: Medical Image Analysis. This manuscript incorporates and expands upon our 2020 Medical Imaging Meets NeurIPS Workshop paper (arXiv:2011.00263) 
  
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Selecting Regions of Interest in Large Multi-Scale Images for Cancer Pathology

Jul 03, 2020
Rui Aguiar, Jon Braatz

Recent breakthroughs in object detection and image classification using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are revolutionizing the state of the art in medical imaging, and microscopy in particular presents abundant opportunities for computer vision algorithms to assist medical professionals in diagnosis of diseases ranging from malaria to cancer. High resolution scans of microscopy slides called Whole Slide Images (WSIs) offer enough information for a cancer pathologist to come to a conclusion regarding cancer presence, subtype, and severity based on measurements of features within the slide image at multiple scales and resolutions. WSIs' extremely high resolutions and feature scales ranging from gross anatomical structures down to cell nuclei preclude the use of standard CNN models for object detection and classification, which have typically been designed for images with dimensions in the hundreds of pixels and with objects on the order of the size of the image itself. We explore parallel approaches based on Reinforcement Learning and Beam Search to learn to progressively zoom into the WSI to detect Regions of Interest (ROIs) in liver pathology slides containing one of two types of liver cancer, namely Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Cholangiocarcinoma (CC). These ROIs can then be presented directly to the pathologist to aid in measurement and diagnosis or be used for automated classification of tumor subtype.

* 9 pages 
  
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