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"cancer detection": models, code, and papers

Lung Cancer Detection and Classification based on Image Processing and Statistical Learning

Nov 25, 2019
Md Rashidul Hasan, Muntasir Al Kabir

Lung cancer is one of the death threatening diseases among human beings. Early and accurate detection of lung cancer can increase the survival rate from lung cancer. Computed Tomography (CT) images are commonly used for detecting the lung cancer.Using a data set of thousands of high-resolution lung scans collected from Kaggle competition [1], we will develop algorithms that accurately determine in the lungs are cancerous or not. The proposed system promises better result than the existing systems, which would be beneficial for the radiologist for the accurate and early detection of cancer. The method has been tested on 198 slices of CT images of various stages of cancer obtained from Kaggle dataset[1] and is found satisfactory results. The accuracy of the proposed method in this dataset is 72.2%

  
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Use of Transfer Learning and Wavelet Transform for Breast Cancer Detection

Mar 05, 2021
Ahmed Rasheed, Muhammad Shahzad Younis, Junaid Qadir, Muhammad Bilal

Breast cancer is one of the most common cause of deaths among women. Mammography is a widely used imaging modality that can be used for cancer detection in its early stages. Deep learning is widely used for the detection of cancerous masses in the images obtained via mammography. The need to improve accuracy remains constant due to the sensitive nature of the datasets so we introduce segmentation and wavelet transform to enhance the important features in the image scans. Our proposed system aids the radiologist in the screening phase of cancer detection by using a combination of segmentation and wavelet transforms as pre-processing augmentation that leads to transfer learning in neural networks. The proposed system with these pre-processing techniques significantly increases the accuracy of detection on Mini-MIAS.

* 9 pages 
  
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Ensemble classifier approach in breast cancer detection and malignancy grading- A review

Apr 11, 2017
Deepti Ameta

The diagnosed cases of Breast cancer is increasing annually and unfortunately getting converted into a high mortality rate. Cancer, at the early stages, is hard to detect because the malicious cells show similar properties (density) as shown by the non-malicious cells. The mortality ratio could have been minimized if the breast cancer could have been detected in its early stages. But the current systems have not been able to achieve a fully automatic system which is not just capable of detecting the breast cancer but also can detect the stage of it. Estimation of malignancy grading is important in diagnosing the degree of growth of malicious cells as well as in selecting a proper therapy for the patient. Therefore, a complete and efficient clinical decision support system is proposed which is capable of achieving breast cancer malignancy grading scheme very efficiently. The system is based on Image processing and machine learning domains. Classification Imbalance problem, a machine learning problem, occurs when instances of one class is much higher than the instances of the other class resulting in an inefficient classification of samples and hence a bad decision support system. Therefore EUSBoost, ensemble based classifier is proposed which is efficient and is able to outperform other classifiers as it takes the benefits of both-boosting algorithm with Random Undersampling techniques. Also comparison of EUSBoost with other techniques is shown in the paper.

* International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies (IJMPICT) Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2017 
* 10 pages,1 figure,5 tables 
  
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A Study of Deep Learning Colon Cancer Detection in Limited Data Access Scenarios

May 22, 2020
Apostolia Tsirikoglou, Karin Stacke, Gabriel Eilertsen, Martin Lindvall, Jonas Unger

Digitization of histopathology slides has led to several advances, from easy data sharing and collaborations to the development of digital diagnostic tools. Deep learning (DL) methods for classification and detection have shown great potential, but often require large amounts of training data that are hard to collect, and annotate. For many cancer types, the scarceness of data creates barriers for training DL models. One such scenario relates to detecting tumor metastasis in lymph node tissue, where the low ratio of tumor to non-tumor cells makes the diagnostic task hard and time-consuming. DL-based tools can allow faster diagnosis, with potentially increased quality. Unfortunately, due to the sparsity of tumor cells, annotating this type of data demands a high level of effort from pathologists. Using weak annotations from slide-level images have shown great potential, but demand access to a substantial amount of data as well. In this study, we investigate mitigation strategies for limited data access scenarios. Particularly, we address whether it is possible to exploit mutual structure between tissues to develop general techniques, wherein data from one type of cancer in a particular tissue could have diagnostic value for other cancers in other tissues. Our case is exemplified by a DL model for metastatic colon cancer detection in lymph nodes. Could such a model be trained with little or even no lymph node data? As alternative data sources, we investigate 1) tumor cells taken from the primary colon tumor tissue, and 2) cancer data from a different organ (breast), either as is or transformed to the target domain (colon) using Cycle-GANs. We show that the suggested approaches make it possible to detect cancer metastasis with no or very little lymph node data, opening up for the possibility that existing, annotated histopathology data could generalize to other domains.

* Presented at the ICLR 2020 Workshop on AI for Overcoming Global Disparities in Cancer Care (AI4CC) 
  
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Learning from Suspected Target: Bootstrapping Performance for Breast Cancer Detection in Mammography

Mar 01, 2020
Li Xiao, Cheng Zhu, Junjun Liu, Chunlong Luo, Peifang Liu, Yi Zhao

Deep learning object detection algorithm has been widely used in medical image analysis. Currently all the object detection tasks are based on the data annotated with object classes and their bounding boxes. On the other hand, medical images such as mammography usually contain normal regions or objects that are similar to the lesion region, and may be misclassified in the testing stage if they are not taken care of. In this paper, we address such problem by introducing a novel top likelihood loss together with a new sampling procedure to select and train the suspected target regions, as well as proposing a similarity loss to further identify suspected targets from targets. Mean average precision (mAP) according to the predicted targets and specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, AUC values according to classification of patients are adopted for performance comparisons. We firstly test our proposed method on a private dense mammogram dataset. Results show that our proposed method greatly reduce the false positive rate and the specificity is increased by 0.25 on detecting mass type cancer. It is worth mention that dense breast typically has a higher risk for developing breast cancers and also are harder for cancer detection in diagnosis, and our method outperforms a reported result from performance of radiologists. Our method is also validated on the public Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) dataset, brings significant improvement on mass type cancer detection and outperforms the most state-of-the-art work.

  
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Artificial Intelligence For Breast Cancer Detection: Trends & Directions

Oct 03, 2021
Shahid Munir Shah, Rizwan Ahmed Khan, Sheeraz Arif, Unaiza Sajid

In the last decade, researchers working in the domain of computer vision and Artificial Intelligence (AI) have beefed up their efforts to come up with the automated framework that not only detects but also identifies stage of breast cancer. The reason for this surge in research activities in this direction are mainly due to advent of robust AI algorithms (deep learning), availability of hardware that can train those robust and complex AI algorithms and accessibility of large enough dataset required for training AI algorithms. Different imaging modalities that have been exploited by researchers to automate the task of breast cancer detection are mammograms, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, histopathological images or any combination of them. This article analyzes these imaging modalities and presents their strengths, limitations and enlists resources from where their datasets can be accessed for research purpose. This article then summarizes AI and computer vision based state-of-the-art methods proposed in the last decade, to detect breast cancer using various imaging modalities. Generally, in this article we have focused on to review frameworks that have reported results using mammograms as it is most widely used breast imaging modality that serves as first test that medical practitioners usually prescribe for the detection of breast cancer. Second reason of focusing on mammogram imaging modalities is the availability of its labeled datasets. Datasets availability is one of the most important aspect for the development of AI based frameworks as such algorithms are data hungry and generally quality of dataset affects performance of AI based algorithms. In a nutshell, this research article will act as a primary resource for the research community working in the field of automated breast imaging analysis.

  
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CancerNet-SCa: Tailored Deep Neural Network Designs for Detection of Skin Cancer from Dermoscopy Images

Nov 21, 2020
James Ren Hou Lee, Maya Pavlova, Mahmoud Famouri, Alexander Wong

Skin cancer continues to be the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in the U.S., with not only significant effects on health and well-being but also significant economic costs associated with treatment. A crucial step to the treatment and management of skin cancer is effective skin cancer detection due to strong prognosis when treated at an early stage, with one of the key screening approaches being dermoscopy examination. Motivated by the advances of deep learning and inspired by the open source initiatives in the research community, in this study we introduce CancerNet-SCa, a suite of deep neural network designs tailored for the detection of skin cancer from dermoscopy images that is open source and available to the general public as part of the Cancer-Net initiative. To the best of the authors' knowledge, CancerNet-SCa comprises of the first machine-designed deep neural network architecture designs tailored specifically for skin cancer detection, one of which possessing a self-attention architecture design with attention condensers. Furthermore, we investigate and audit the behaviour of CancerNet-SCa in a responsible and transparent manner via explainability-driven model auditing. While CancerNet-SCa is not a production-ready screening solution, the hope is that the release of CancerNet-SCa in open source, open access form will encourage researchers, clinicians, and citizen data scientists alike to leverage and build upon them.

* 8 pages 
  
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Microwave breast cancer detection using Empirical Mode Decomposition features

Feb 24, 2017
Hongchao Song, Yunpeng Li, Mark Coates, Aidong Men

Microwave-based breast cancer detection has been proposed as a complementary approach to compensate for some drawbacks of existing breast cancer detection techniques. Among the existing microwave breast cancer detection methods, machine learning-type algorithms have recently become more popular. These focus on detecting the existence of breast tumours rather than performing imaging to identify the exact tumour position. A key step of the machine learning approaches is feature extraction. One of the most widely used feature extraction method is principle component analysis (PCA). However, it can be sensitive to signal misalignment. This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based feature extraction method, which is more robust to the misalignment. Experimental results involving clinical data sets combined with numerically simulated tumour responses show that combined features from EMD and PCA improve the detection performance with an ensemble selection-based classifier.

  
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Lung Cancer Detection using Co-learning from Chest CT Images and Clinical Demographics

Feb 21, 2019
Jiachen Wang, Riqiang Gao, Yuankai Huo, Shunxing Bao, Yunxi Xiong, Sanja L. Antic, Travis J. Osterman, Pierre P. Massion, Bennett A. Landman

Early detection of lung cancer is essential in reducing mortality. Recent studies have demonstrated the clinical utility of low-dose computed tomography (CT) to detect lung cancer among individuals selected based on very limited clinical information. However, this strategy yields high false positive rates, which can lead to unnecessary and potentially harmful procedures. To address such challenges, we established a pipeline that co-learns from detailed clinical demographics and 3D CT images. Toward this end, we leveraged data from the Consortium for Molecular and Cellular Characterization of Screen-Detected Lesions (MCL), which focuses on early detection of lung cancer. A 3D attention-based deep convolutional neural net (DCNN) is proposed to identify lung cancer from the chest CT scan without prior anatomical location of the suspicious nodule. To improve upon the non-invasive discrimination between benign and malignant, we applied a random forest classifier to a dataset integrating clinical information to imaging data. The results show that the AUC obtained from clinical demographics alone was 0.635 while the attention network alone reached an accuracy of 0.687. In contrast when applying our proposed pipeline integrating clinical and imaging variables, we reached an AUC of 0.787 on the testing dataset. The proposed network both efficiently captures anatomical information for classification and also generates attention maps that explain the features that drive performance.

* SPIE Medical Image, oral presentation 
  
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A Semi-Supervised Machine Learning Approach to Detecting Recurrent Metastatic Breast Cancer Cases Using Linked Cancer Registry and Electronic Medical Record Data

Jan 17, 2019
Albee Y. Ling, Allison W. Kurian, Jennifer L. Caswell-Jin, George W. Sledge Jr., Nigam H. Shah, Suzanne R. Tamang

Objectives: Most cancer data sources lack information on metastatic recurrence. Electronic medical records (EMRs) and population-based cancer registries contain complementary information on cancer treatment and outcomes, yet are rarely used synergistically. To enable detection of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), we applied a semi-supervised machine learning framework to linked EMR-California Cancer Registry (CCR) data. Materials and Methods: We studied 11,459 female patients treated at Stanford Health Care who received an incident breast cancer diagnosis from 2000-2014. The dataset consisted of structured data and unstructured free-text clinical notes from EMR, linked to CCR, a component of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. We extracted information on metastatic disease from patient notes to infer a class label and then trained a regularized logistic regression model for MBC classification. We evaluated model performance on a gold standard set of set of 146 patients. Results: There are 495 patients with de novo stage IV MBC, 1,374 patients initially diagnosed with Stage 0-III disease had recurrent MBC, and 9,590 had no evidence of metastatis. The median follow-up time is 96.3 months (mean 97.8, standard deviation 46.7). The best-performing model incorporated both EMR and CCR features. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve=0.925 [95% confidence interval: 0.880-0.969], sensitivity=0.861, specificity=0.878 and overall accuracy=0.870. Discussion and Conclusion: A framework for MBC case detection combining EMR and CCR data achieved good sensitivity, specificity and discrimination without requiring expert-labeled examples. This approach enables population-based research on how patients die from cancer and may identify novel predictors of cancer recurrence.

  
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