Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!

Chrome logo  Add to Chrome

Firefox logo Add to Firefox

"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

AEDA: An Easier Data Augmentation Technique for Text Classification

Aug 30, 2021
Akbar Karimi, Leonardo Rossi, Andrea Prati

This paper proposes AEDA (An Easier Data Augmentation) technique to help improve the performance on text classification tasks. AEDA includes only random insertion of punctuation marks into the original text. This is an easier technique to implement for data augmentation than EDA method (Wei and Zou, 2019) with which we compare our results. In addition, it keeps the order of the words while changing their positions in the sentence leading to a better generalized performance. Furthermore, the deletion operation in EDA can cause loss of information which, in turn, misleads the network, whereas AEDA preserves all the input information. Following the baseline, we perform experiments on five different datasets for text classification. We show that using the AEDA-augmented data for training, the models show superior performance compared to using the EDA-augmented data in all five datasets. The source code is available for further study and reproduction of the results.

* Accepted at EMNLP 2021 Findings 

Neural Attentive Bag-of-Entities Model for Text Classification

Sep 03, 2019
Ikuya Yamada, Hiroyuki Shindo

This study proposes a Neural Attentive Bag-of-Entities model, which is a neural network model that performs text classification using entities in a knowledge base. Entities provide unambiguous and relevant semantic signals that are beneficial for capturing semantics in texts. We combine simple high-recall entity detection based on a dictionary, to detect entities in a document, with a novel neural attention mechanism that enables the model to focus on a small number of unambiguous and relevant entities. We tested the effectiveness of our model using two standard text classification datasets (i.e., the 20 Newsgroups and R8 datasets) and a popular factoid question answering dataset based on a trivia quiz game. As a result, our model achieved state-of-the-art results on all datasets. The source code of the proposed model will be available online at

* Accepted to CoNLL 2019 

VGCN-BERT: Augmenting BERT with Graph Embedding for Text Classification

Apr 12, 2020
Zhibin Lu, Pan Du, Jian-Yun Nie

Much progress has been made recently on text classification with methods based on neural networks. In particular, models using attention mechanism such as BERT have shown to have the capability of capturing the contextual information within a sentence or document. However, their ability of capturing the global information about the vocabulary of a language is more limited. This latter is the strength of Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN). In this paper, we propose VGCN-BERT model which combines the capability of BERT with a Vocabulary Graph Convolutional Network (VGCN). Local information and global information interact through different layers of BERT, allowing them to influence mutually and to build together a final representation for classification. In our experiments on several text classification datasets, our approach outperforms BERT and GCN alone, and achieve higher effectiveness than that reported in previous studies.

* J. M. Jose et al. (Eds.): ECIR 2020, LNCS 12035, pp.369-382, 2020 
* 12 pages, 2 figures 

Multichannel CNN with Attention for Text Classification

Jun 29, 2020
Zhenyu Liu, Haiwei Huang, Chaohong Lu, Shengfei Lyu

Recent years, the approaches based on neural networks have shown remarkable potential for sentence modeling. There are two main neural network structures: recurrent neural network (RNN) and convolution neural network (CNN). RNN can capture long term dependencies and store the semantics of the previous information in a fixed-sized vector. However, RNN is a biased model and its ability to extract global semantics is restricted by the fixed-sized vector. Alternatively, CNN is able to capture n-gram features of texts by utilizing convolutional filters. But the width of convolutional filters restricts its performance. In order to combine the strengths of the two kinds of networks and alleviate their shortcomings, this paper proposes Attention-based Multichannel Convolutional Neural Network (AMCNN) for text classification. AMCNN utilizes a bi-directional long short-term memory to encode the history and future information of words into high dimensional representations, so that the information of both the front and back of the sentence can be fully expressed. Then the scalar attention and vectorial attention are applied to obtain multichannel representations. The scalar attention can calculate the word-level importance and the vectorial attention can calculate the feature-level importance. In the classification task, AMCNN uses a CNN structure to cpture word relations on the representations generated by the scalar and vectorial attention mechanism instead of calculating the weighted sums. It can effectively extract the n-gram features of the text. The experimental results on the benchmark datasets demonstrate that AMCNN achieves better performance than state-of-the-art methods. In addition, the visualization results verify the semantic richness of multichannel representations.


Image and Encoded Text Fusion for Multi-Modal Classification

Oct 03, 2018
Ignazio Gallo, Alessandro Calefati, Shah Nawaz, Muhammad Kamran Janjua

Multi-modal approaches employ data from multiple input streams such as textual and visual domains. Deep neural networks have been successfully employed for these approaches. In this paper, we present a novel multi-modal approach that fuses images and text descriptions to improve multi-modal classification performance in real-world scenarios. The proposed approach embeds an encoded text onto an image to obtain an information-enriched image. To learn feature representations of resulting images, standard Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are employed for the classification task. We demonstrate how a CNN based pipeline can be used to learn representations of the novel fusion approach. We compare our approach with individual sources on two large-scale multi-modal classification datasets while obtaining encouraging results. Furthermore, we evaluate our approach against two famous multi-modal strategies namely early fusion and late fusion.

* Accepted to DICTA 2018 

Toward Automated Website Classification by Deep Learning

Oct 22, 2019
Fabrizio De Fausti, Francesco Pugliese, Diego Zardetto

In recent years, the interest in Big Data sources has been steadily growing within the Official Statistic community. The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) is currently carrying out several Big Data pilot studies. One of these studies, the ICT Big Data pilot, aims at exploiting massive amounts of textual data automatically scraped from the websites of Italian enterprises in order to predict a set of target variables (e.g. e-commerce) that are routinely observed by the traditional ICT Survey. In this paper, we show that Deep Learning techniques can successfully address this problem. Essentially, we tackle a text classification task: an algorithm must learn to infer whether an Italian enterprise performs e-commerce from the textual content of its website. To reach this goal, we developed a sophisticated processing pipeline and evaluated its performance through extensive experiments. Our pipeline uses Convolutional Neural Networks and relies on Word Embeddings to encode raw texts into grayscale images (i.e. normalized numeric matrices). Web-scraped texts are huge and have very low signal to noise ratio: to overcome these issues, we adopted a framework known as False Positive Reduction, which has seldom (if ever) been applied before to text classification tasks. Several original contributions enable our processing pipeline to reach good classification results. Empirical evidence shows that our proposal outperforms all the alternative Machine Learning solutions already tested in Istat for the same task.


Sentiment Classification of Customer Reviews about Automobiles in Roman Urdu

Dec 30, 2018
Moin Khan, Kamran Malik

Text mining is a broad field having sentiment mining as its important constituent in which we try to deduce the behavior of people towards a specific item, merchandise, politics, sports, social media comments, review sites etc. Out of many issues in sentiment mining, analysis and classification, one major issue is that the reviews and comments can be in different languages like English, Arabic, Urdu etc. Handling each language according to its rules is a difficult task. A lot of research work has been done in English Language for sentiment analysis and classification but limited sentiment analysis work is being carried out on other regional languages like Arabic, Urdu and Hindi. In this paper, Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) is used as a platform to execute different classification models for text classification of Roman Urdu text. Reviews dataset has been scrapped from different automobiles sites. These extracted Roman Urdu reviews, containing 1000 positive and 1000 negative reviews, are then saved in WEKA attribute-relation file format (arff) as labeled examples. Training is done on 80% of this data and rest of it is used for testing purpose which is done using different models and results are analyzed in each case. The results show that Multinomial Naive Bayes outperformed Bagging, Deep Neural Network, Decision Tree, Random Forest, AdaBoost, k-NN and SVM Classifiers in terms of more accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure.

* Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 887 (2018) 630-640 
* This is a pre-print of a contribution published in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (editors: Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor and Rahul Bhatia) published by Springer, Cham. The final authenticated version is available online at: 

Leveraging Adversarial Training in Self-Learning for Cross-Lingual Text Classification

Jul 29, 2020
Xin Dong, Yaxin Zhu, Yupeng Zhang, Zuohui Fu, Dongkuan Xu, Sen Yang, Gerard de Melo

In cross-lingual text classification, one seeks to exploit labeled data from one language to train a text classification model that can then be applied to a completely different language. Recent multilingual representation models have made it much easier to achieve this. Still, there may still be subtle differences between languages that are neglected when doing so. To address this, we present a semi-supervised adversarial training process that minimizes the maximal loss for label-preserving input perturbations. The resulting model then serves as a teacher to induce labels for unlabeled target language samples that can be used during further adversarial training, allowing us to gradually adapt our model to the target language. Compared with a number of strong baselines, we observe significant gains in effectiveness on document and intent classification for a diverse set of languages.

* SIGIR 2020 (Short Paper) 

"What is Relevant in a Text Document?": An Interpretable Machine Learning Approach

Dec 23, 2016
Leila Arras, Franziska Horn, Grégoire Montavon, Klaus-Robert Müller, Wojciech Samek

Text documents can be described by a number of abstract concepts such as semantic category, writing style, or sentiment. Machine learning (ML) models have been trained to automatically map documents to these abstract concepts, allowing to annotate very large text collections, more than could be processed by a human in a lifetime. Besides predicting the text's category very accurately, it is also highly desirable to understand how and why the categorization process takes place. In this paper, we demonstrate that such understanding can be achieved by tracing the classification decision back to individual words using layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP), a recently developed technique for explaining predictions of complex non-linear classifiers. We train two word-based ML models, a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a bag-of-words SVM classifier, on a topic categorization task and adapt the LRP method to decompose the predictions of these models onto words. Resulting scores indicate how much individual words contribute to the overall classification decision. This enables one to distill relevant information from text documents without an explicit semantic information extraction step. We further use the word-wise relevance scores for generating novel vector-based document representations which capture semantic information. Based on these document vectors, we introduce a measure of model explanatory power and show that, although the SVM and CNN models perform similarly in terms of classification accuracy, the latter exhibits a higher level of explainability which makes it more comprehensible for humans and potentially more useful for other applications.

* 19 pages, 7 figures 

Structure Regularized Neural Network for Entity Relation Classification for Chinese Literature Text

Mar 15, 2018
Ji Wen, Xu Sun, Xuancheng Ren, Qi Su

Relation classification is an important semantic processing task in the field of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose the task of relation classification for Chinese literature text. A new dataset of Chinese literature text is constructed to facilitate the study in this task. We present a novel model, named Structure Regularized Bidirectional Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network (SR-BRCNN), to identify the relation between entities. The proposed model learns relation representations along the shortest dependency path (SDP) extracted from the structure regularized dependency tree, which has the benefits of reducing the complexity of the whole model. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly improves the F1 score by 10.3, and outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on Chinese literature text.

* Accepted at NAACL HLT 2018. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1711.02509