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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Image and Encoded Text Fusion for Multi-Modal Classification

Oct 03, 2018
Ignazio Gallo, Alessandro Calefati, Shah Nawaz, Muhammad Kamran Janjua

Multi-modal approaches employ data from multiple input streams such as textual and visual domains. Deep neural networks have been successfully employed for these approaches. In this paper, we present a novel multi-modal approach that fuses images and text descriptions to improve multi-modal classification performance in real-world scenarios. The proposed approach embeds an encoded text onto an image to obtain an information-enriched image. To learn feature representations of resulting images, standard Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are employed for the classification task. We demonstrate how a CNN based pipeline can be used to learn representations of the novel fusion approach. We compare our approach with individual sources on two large-scale multi-modal classification datasets while obtaining encouraging results. Furthermore, we evaluate our approach against two famous multi-modal strategies namely early fusion and late fusion.

* Accepted to DICTA 2018 
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Toward Automated Website Classification by Deep Learning

Oct 22, 2019
Fabrizio De Fausti, Francesco Pugliese, Diego Zardetto

In recent years, the interest in Big Data sources has been steadily growing within the Official Statistic community. The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) is currently carrying out several Big Data pilot studies. One of these studies, the ICT Big Data pilot, aims at exploiting massive amounts of textual data automatically scraped from the websites of Italian enterprises in order to predict a set of target variables (e.g. e-commerce) that are routinely observed by the traditional ICT Survey. In this paper, we show that Deep Learning techniques can successfully address this problem. Essentially, we tackle a text classification task: an algorithm must learn to infer whether an Italian enterprise performs e-commerce from the textual content of its website. To reach this goal, we developed a sophisticated processing pipeline and evaluated its performance through extensive experiments. Our pipeline uses Convolutional Neural Networks and relies on Word Embeddings to encode raw texts into grayscale images (i.e. normalized numeric matrices). Web-scraped texts are huge and have very low signal to noise ratio: to overcome these issues, we adopted a framework known as False Positive Reduction, which has seldom (if ever) been applied before to text classification tasks. Several original contributions enable our processing pipeline to reach good classification results. Empirical evidence shows that our proposal outperforms all the alternative Machine Learning solutions already tested in Istat for the same task.

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Sentiment Classification of Customer Reviews about Automobiles in Roman Urdu

Dec 30, 2018
Moin Khan, Kamran Malik

Text mining is a broad field having sentiment mining as its important constituent in which we try to deduce the behavior of people towards a specific item, merchandise, politics, sports, social media comments, review sites etc. Out of many issues in sentiment mining, analysis and classification, one major issue is that the reviews and comments can be in different languages like English, Arabic, Urdu etc. Handling each language according to its rules is a difficult task. A lot of research work has been done in English Language for sentiment analysis and classification but limited sentiment analysis work is being carried out on other regional languages like Arabic, Urdu and Hindi. In this paper, Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) is used as a platform to execute different classification models for text classification of Roman Urdu text. Reviews dataset has been scrapped from different automobiles sites. These extracted Roman Urdu reviews, containing 1000 positive and 1000 negative reviews, are then saved in WEKA attribute-relation file format (arff) as labeled examples. Training is done on 80% of this data and rest of it is used for testing purpose which is done using different models and results are analyzed in each case. The results show that Multinomial Naive Bayes outperformed Bagging, Deep Neural Network, Decision Tree, Random Forest, AdaBoost, k-NN and SVM Classifiers in terms of more accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure.

* Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 887 (2018) 630-640 
* This is a pre-print of a contribution published in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (editors: Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor and Rahul Bhatia) published by Springer, Cham. The final authenticated version is available online at: 
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Leveraging Adversarial Training in Self-Learning for Cross-Lingual Text Classification

Jul 29, 2020
Xin Dong, Yaxin Zhu, Yupeng Zhang, Zuohui Fu, Dongkuan Xu, Sen Yang, Gerard de Melo

In cross-lingual text classification, one seeks to exploit labeled data from one language to train a text classification model that can then be applied to a completely different language. Recent multilingual representation models have made it much easier to achieve this. Still, there may still be subtle differences between languages that are neglected when doing so. To address this, we present a semi-supervised adversarial training process that minimizes the maximal loss for label-preserving input perturbations. The resulting model then serves as a teacher to induce labels for unlabeled target language samples that can be used during further adversarial training, allowing us to gradually adapt our model to the target language. Compared with a number of strong baselines, we observe significant gains in effectiveness on document and intent classification for a diverse set of languages.

* SIGIR 2020 (Short Paper) 
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"What is Relevant in a Text Document?": An Interpretable Machine Learning Approach

Dec 23, 2016
Leila Arras, Franziska Horn, Grégoire Montavon, Klaus-Robert Müller, Wojciech Samek

Text documents can be described by a number of abstract concepts such as semantic category, writing style, or sentiment. Machine learning (ML) models have been trained to automatically map documents to these abstract concepts, allowing to annotate very large text collections, more than could be processed by a human in a lifetime. Besides predicting the text's category very accurately, it is also highly desirable to understand how and why the categorization process takes place. In this paper, we demonstrate that such understanding can be achieved by tracing the classification decision back to individual words using layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP), a recently developed technique for explaining predictions of complex non-linear classifiers. We train two word-based ML models, a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a bag-of-words SVM classifier, on a topic categorization task and adapt the LRP method to decompose the predictions of these models onto words. Resulting scores indicate how much individual words contribute to the overall classification decision. This enables one to distill relevant information from text documents without an explicit semantic information extraction step. We further use the word-wise relevance scores for generating novel vector-based document representations which capture semantic information. Based on these document vectors, we introduce a measure of model explanatory power and show that, although the SVM and CNN models perform similarly in terms of classification accuracy, the latter exhibits a higher level of explainability which makes it more comprehensible for humans and potentially more useful for other applications.

* 19 pages, 7 figures 
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Structure Regularized Neural Network for Entity Relation Classification for Chinese Literature Text

Mar 15, 2018
Ji Wen, Xu Sun, Xuancheng Ren, Qi Su

Relation classification is an important semantic processing task in the field of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose the task of relation classification for Chinese literature text. A new dataset of Chinese literature text is constructed to facilitate the study in this task. We present a novel model, named Structure Regularized Bidirectional Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network (SR-BRCNN), to identify the relation between entities. The proposed model learns relation representations along the shortest dependency path (SDP) extracted from the structure regularized dependency tree, which has the benefits of reducing the complexity of the whole model. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly improves the F1 score by 10.3, and outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on Chinese literature text.

* Accepted at NAACL HLT 2018. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1711.02509 
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Large Scale Legal Text Classification Using Transformer Models

Oct 24, 2020
Zein Shaheen, Gerhard Wohlgenannt, Erwin Filtz

Large multi-label text classification is a challenging Natural Language Processing (NLP) problem that is concerned with text classification for datasets with thousands of labels. We tackle this problem in the legal domain, where datasets, such as JRC-Acquis and EURLEX57K labeled with the EuroVoc vocabulary were created within the legal information systems of the European Union. The EuroVoc taxonomy includes around 7000 concepts. In this work, we study the performance of various recent transformer-based models in combination with strategies such as generative pretraining, gradual unfreezing and discriminative learning rates in order to reach competitive classification performance, and present new state-of-the-art results of 0.661 (F1) for JRC-Acquis and 0.754 for EURLEX57K. Furthermore, we quantify the impact of individual steps, such as language model fine-tuning or gradual unfreezing in an ablation study, and provide reference dataset splits created with an iterative stratification algorithm.

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On the Importance of Attention in Meta-Learning for Few-Shot Text Classification

Jun 03, 2018
Xiang Jiang, Mohammad Havaei, Gabriel Chartrand, Hassan Chouaib, Thomas Vincent, Andrew Jesson, Nicolas Chapados, Stan Matwin

Current deep learning based text classification methods are limited by their ability to achieve fast learning and generalization when the data is scarce. We address this problem by integrating a meta-learning procedure that uses the knowledge learned across many tasks as an inductive bias towards better natural language understanding. Based on the Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning framework (MAML), we introduce the Attentive Task-Agnostic Meta-Learning (ATAML) algorithm for text classification. The essential difference between MAML and ATAML is in the separation of task-agnostic representation learning and task-specific attentive adaptation. The proposed ATAML is designed to encourage task-agnostic representation learning by way of task-agnostic parameterization and facilitate task-specific adaptation via attention mechanisms. We provide evidence to show that the attention mechanism in ATAML has a synergistic effect on learning performance. In comparisons with models trained from random initialization, pretrained models and meta trained MAML, our proposed ATAML method generalizes better on single-label and multi-label classification tasks in miniRCV1 and miniReuters-21578 datasets.

* 13 pages, 4 figures, submitted to NIPS 
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A Comparison of Synthetic Oversampling Methods for Multi-class Text Classification

Aug 11, 2020
Anna Glazkova

The authors compared oversampling methods for the problem of multi-class topic classification. The SMOTE algorithm underlies one of the most popular oversampling methods. It consists in choosing two examples of a minority class and generating a new example based on them. In the paper, the authors compared the basic SMOTE method with its two modifications (Borderline SMOTE and ADASYN) and random oversampling technique on the example of one of text classification tasks. The paper discusses the k-nearest neighbor algorithm, the support vector machine algorithm and three types of neural networks (feedforward network, long short-term memory (LSTM) and bidirectional LSTM). The authors combine these machine learning algorithms with different text representations and compared synthetic oversampling methods. In most cases, the use of oversampling techniques can significantly improve the quality of classification. The authors conclude that for this task, the quality of the KNN and SVM algorithms is more influenced by class imbalance than neural networks.

* 12 pages, 5 figures 
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MixText: Linguistically-Informed Interpolation of Hidden Space for Semi-Supervised Text Classification

Apr 25, 2020
Jiaao Chen, Zichao Yang, Diyi Yang

This paper presents MixText, a semi-supervised learning method for text classification, which uses our newly designed data augmentation method called TMix. TMix creates a large amount of augmented training samples by interpolating text in hidden space. Moreover, we leverage recent advances in data augmentation to guess low-entropy labels for unlabeled data, hence making them as easy to use as labeled data.By mixing labeled, unlabeled and augmented data, MixText significantly outperformed current pre-trained and fined-tuned models and other state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning methods on several text classification benchmarks. The improvement is especially prominent when supervision is extremely limited. We have publicly released our code at

* ACL 2020 
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