Recent academic research has extensively examined algorithmic collusion resulting from the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI)-based dynamic pricing algorithms. Nevertheless, e-commerce platforms employ recommendation algorithms to allocate exposure to various products, and this important aspect has been largely overlooked in previous studies on algorithmic collusion. Our study bridges this important gap in the literature and examines how recommendation algorithms can determine the competitive or collusive dynamics of AI-based pricing algorithms. Specifically, two commonly deployed recommendation algorithms are examined: (i) a recommender system that aims to maximize the sellers' total profit (profit-based recommender system) and (ii) a recommender system that aims to maximize the demand for products sold on the platform (demand-based recommender system). We construct a repeated game framework that incorporates both pricing algorithms adopted by sellers and the platform's recommender system. Subsequently, we conduct experiments to observe price dynamics and ascertain the final equilibrium. Experimental results reveal that a profit-based recommender system intensifies algorithmic collusion among sellers due to its congruence with sellers' profit-maximizing objectives. Conversely, a demand-based recommender system fosters price competition among sellers and results in a lower price, owing to its misalignment with sellers' goals. Extended analyses suggest the robustness of our findings in various market scenarios. Overall, we highlight the importance of platforms' recommender systems in delineating the competitive structure of the digital marketplace, providing important insights for market participants and corresponding policymakers.
With the advent of general-purpose Generative AI, the interest in discerning its impact on the labor market escalates. In an attempt to bridge the extant empirical void, we interpret the launch of ChatGPT as an exogenous shock, and implement a Difference-in-Differences (DID) approach to quantify its influence on text-related jobs and freelancers within an online labor marketplace. Our results reveal a significant decrease in transaction volume for gigs and freelancers directly exposed to ChatGPT. Additionally, this decline is particularly marked in units of relatively higher past transaction volume or lower quality standards. Yet, the negative effect is not universally experienced among service providers. Subsequent analyses illustrate that freelancers proficiently adapting to novel advancements and offering services that augment AI technologies can yield substantial benefits amidst this transformative period. Consequently, even though the advent of ChatGPT could conceivably substitute existing occupations, it also unfolds immense opportunities and carries the potential to reconfigure the future of work. This research contributes to the limited empirical repository exploring the profound influence of LLM-based generative AI on the labor market, furnishing invaluable insights for workers, job intermediaries, and regulatory bodies navigating this evolving landscape.
Under various poses and heavy occlusions,3D hand model reconstruction based on a single monocular RGB image has been a challenging problem in computer vision field for many years. In this paper, we propose a SR-Affine approach for high-quality 3D hand model reconstruction. First, we propose an encoder-decoder network architecture (AffineNet) for MANO hand reconstruction. Since MANO hand is not detailed, we further propose SRNet to up-sampling point-clouds by image super-resolution on the UV map. Many experiments demonstrate that our approach is robust and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on standard benchmarks, including the FreiHAND and HO3D datasets.
Online healthcare communities provide users with various healthcare interventions to promote healthy behavior and improve adherence. When faced with too many intervention choices, however, individuals may find it difficult to decide which option to take, especially when they lack the experience or knowledge to evaluate different options. The choice overload issue may negatively affect users' engagement in health management. In this study, we take a design-science perspective to propose a recommendation framework that helps users to select healthcare interventions. Taking into account that users' health behaviors can be highly dynamic and diverse, we propose a multi-armed bandit (MAB)-driven recommendation framework, which enables us to adaptively learn users' preference variations while promoting recommendation diversity in the meantime. To better adapt an MAB to the healthcare context, we synthesize two innovative model components based on prominent health theories. The first component is a deep-learning-based feature engineering procedure, which is designed to learn crucial recommendation contexts in regard to users' sequential health histories, health-management experiences, preferences, and intrinsic attributes of healthcare interventions. The second component is a diversity constraint, which structurally diversifies recommendations in different dimensions to provide users with well-rounded support. We apply our approach to an online weight management context and evaluate it rigorously through a series of experiments. Our results demonstrate that each of the design components is effective and that our recommendation design outperforms a wide range of state-of-the-art recommendation systems. Our study contributes to the research on the application of business intelligence and has implications for multiple stakeholders, including online healthcare platforms, policymakers, and users.
The prevalence of online media has attracted researchers from various domains to explore human behavior and make interesting predictions. In this research, we leverage heterogeneous social media data collected from various online platforms to predict Taiwan's 2016 presidential election. In contrast to most existing research, we take a "signal" view of heterogeneous information and adopt the Kalman filter to fuse multiple signals into daily vote predictions for the candidates. We also consider events that influenced the election in a quantitative manner based on the so-called event study model that originated in the field of financial research. We obtained the following interesting findings. First, public opinions in online media dominate traditional polls in Taiwan election prediction in terms of both predictive power and timeliness. But offline polls can still function on alleviating the sample bias of online opinions. Second, although online signals converge as election day approaches, the simple Facebook "Like" is consistently the strongest indicator of the election result. Third, most influential events have a strong connection to cross-strait relations, and the Chou Tzu-yu flag incident followed by the apology video one day before the election increased the vote share of Tsai Ing-Wen by 3.66%. This research justifies the predictive power of online media in politics and the advantages of information fusion. The combined use of the Kalman filter and the event study method contributes to the data-driven political analytics paradigm for both prediction and attribution purposes.
We study a group of new methods to solve an open problem that is the shortest paths problem on a given fix-weighted instance. It is the real significance at a considerable altitude to reach our aim to meet these qualities of generic, efficiency, precision which we generally require to a methodology. Besides our proof to guarantee our measures might work normally, we pay more interest to root out the vital theory about calculation and logic in favor of our extension to range over a wide field about decision, operator, economy, management, robot, AI and etc.
We study an ancient problem that in a static or dynamical system, sought an optimal path, which the context always means within an extremal condition. In fact, through those discussions about this theme, we established a universal essential calculated model to serve for these complex systems. Meanwhile we utilize the sample space to character the system. These contents in this paper would involve in several major areas including the geometry, probability, graph algorithms and some prior approaches, which stands the ultimately subtle linear algorithm to solve this class problem. Along with our progress, our discussion would demonstrate more general meaning and robust character, which provides clear ideas or notion to support our concrete applications, who work in a more popular complex system.