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Vinay Uday Prabhu

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Beyond the Imitation Game: Quantifying and extrapolating the capabilities of language models

Jun 10, 2022
Aarohi Srivastava, Abhinav Rastogi, Abhishek Rao, Abu Awal Md Shoeb, Abubakar Abid, Adam Fisch, Adam R. Brown, Adam Santoro, Aditya Gupta, Adrià Garriga-Alonso, Agnieszka Kluska, Aitor Lewkowycz, Akshat Agarwal, Alethea Power, Alex Ray, Alex Warstadt, Alexander W. Kocurek, Ali Safaya, Ali Tazarv, Alice Xiang, Alicia Parrish, Allen Nie, Aman Hussain, Amanda Askell, Amanda Dsouza, Ambrose Slone, Ameet Rahane, Anantharaman S. Iyer, Anders Andreassen, Andrea Madotto, Andrea Santilli, Andreas Stuhlmüller, Andrew Dai, Andrew La, Andrew Lampinen, Andy Zou, Angela Jiang, Angelica Chen, Anh Vuong, Animesh Gupta, Anna Gottardi, Antonio Norelli, Anu Venkatesh, Arash Gholamidavoodi, Arfa Tabassum, Arul Menezes, Arun Kirubarajan, Asher Mullokandov, Ashish Sabharwal, Austin Herrick, Avia Efrat, Aykut Erdem, Ayla Karakaş, B. Ryan Roberts, Bao Sheng Loe, Barret Zoph, Bartłomiej Bojanowski, Batuhan Özyurt, Behnam Hedayatnia, Behnam Neyshabur, Benjamin Inden, Benno Stein, Berk Ekmekci, Bill Yuchen Lin, Blake Howald, Cameron Diao, Cameron Dour, Catherine Stinson, Cedrick Argueta, César Ferri Ramírez, Chandan Singh, Charles Rathkopf, Chenlin Meng, Chitta Baral, Chiyu Wu, Chris Callison-Burch, Chris Waites, Christian Voigt, Christopher D. Manning, Christopher Potts, Cindy Ramirez, Clara E. Rivera, Clemencia Siro, Colin Raffel, Courtney Ashcraft, Cristina Garbacea, Damien Sileo, Dan Garrette, Dan Hendrycks, Dan Kilman, Dan Roth, Daniel Freeman, Daniel Khashabi, Daniel Levy, Daniel Moseguí González, Danielle Perszyk, Danny Hernandez, Danqi Chen, Daphne Ippolito, Dar Gilboa, David Dohan, David Drakard, David Jurgens, Debajyoti Datta, Deep Ganguli, Denis Emelin, Denis Kleyko, Deniz Yuret, Derek Chen, Derek Tam, Dieuwke Hupkes, Diganta Misra, Dilyar Buzan, Dimitri Coelho Mollo, Diyi Yang, Dong-Ho Lee, Ekaterina Shutova, Ekin Dogus Cubuk, Elad Segal, Eleanor Hagerman, Elizabeth Barnes, Elizabeth Donoway, Ellie Pavlick, Emanuele Rodola, Emma Lam, Eric Chu, Eric Tang, Erkut Erdem, Ernie Chang, Ethan A. Chi, Ethan Dyer, Ethan Jerzak, Ethan Kim, Eunice Engefu Manyasi, Evgenii Zheltonozhskii, Fanyue Xia, Fatemeh Siar, Fernando Martínez-Plumed, Francesca Happé, Francois Chollet, Frieda Rong, Gaurav Mishra, Genta Indra Winata, Gerard de Melo, Germán Kruszewski, Giambattista Parascandolo, Giorgio Mariani, Gloria Wang, Gonzalo Jaimovitch-López, Gregor Betz, Guy Gur-Ari, Hana Galijasevic, Hannah Kim, Hannah Rashkin, Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Harsh Mehta, Hayden Bogar, Henry Shevlin, Hinrich Schütze, Hiromu Yakura, Hongming Zhang, Hugh Mee Wong, Ian Ng, Isaac Noble, Jaap Jumelet, Jack Geissinger, Jackson Kernion, Jacob Hilton, Jaehoon Lee, Jaime Fernández Fisac, James B. Simon, James Koppel, James Zheng, James Zou, Jan Kocoń, Jana Thompson, Jared Kaplan, Jarema Radom, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein, Jason Phang, Jason Wei, Jason Yosinski, Jekaterina Novikova, Jelle Bosscher, Jennifer Marsh, Jeremy Kim, Jeroen Taal, Jesse Engel, Jesujoba Alabi, Jiacheng Xu, Jiaming Song, Jillian Tang, Joan Waweru, John Burden, John Miller, John U. Balis, Jonathan Berant, Jörg Frohberg, Jos Rozen, Jose Hernandez-Orallo, Joseph Boudeman, Joseph Jones, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Joshua S. Rule, Joyce Chua, Kamil Kanclerz, Karen Livescu, Karl Krauth, Karthik Gopalakrishnan, Katerina Ignatyeva, Katja Markert, Kaustubh D. Dhole, Kevin Gimpel, Kevin Omondi, Kory Mathewson, Kristen Chiafullo, Ksenia Shkaruta, Kumar Shridhar, Kyle McDonell, Kyle Richardson, Laria Reynolds, Leo Gao, Li Zhang, Liam Dugan, Lianhui Qin, Lidia Contreras-Ochando, Louis-Philippe Morency, Luca Moschella, Lucas Lam, Lucy Noble, Ludwig Schmidt, Luheng He, Luis Oliveros Colón, Luke Metz, Lütfi Kerem Şenel, Maarten Bosma, Maarten Sap, Maartje ter Hoeve, Maheen Farooqi, Manaal Faruqui, Mantas Mazeika, Marco Baturan, Marco Marelli, Marco Maru, Maria Jose Ramírez Quintana, Marie Tolkiehn, Mario Giulianelli, Martha Lewis, Martin Potthast, Matthew L. Leavitt, Matthias Hagen, Mátyás Schubert, Medina Orduna Baitemirova, Melody Arnaud, Melvin McElrath, Michael A. Yee, Michael Cohen, Michael Gu, Michael Ivanitskiy, Michael Starritt, Michael Strube, Michał Swędrowski, Michele Bevilacqua, Michihiro Yasunaga, Mihir Kale, Mike Cain, Mimee Xu, Mirac Suzgun, Mo Tiwari, Mohit Bansal, Moin Aminnaseri, Mor Geva, Mozhdeh Gheini, Mukund Varma T, Nanyun Peng, Nathan Chi, Nayeon Lee, Neta Gur-Ari Krakover, Nicholas Cameron, Nicholas Roberts, Nick Doiron, Nikita Nangia, Niklas Deckers, Niklas Muennighoff, Nitish Shirish Keskar, Niveditha S. Iyer, Noah Constant, Noah Fiedel, Nuan Wen, Oliver Zhang, Omar Agha, Omar Elbaghdadi, Omer Levy, Owain Evans, Pablo Antonio Moreno Casares, Parth Doshi, Pascale Fung, Paul Pu Liang, Paul Vicol, Pegah Alipoormolabashi, Peiyuan Liao, Percy Liang, Peter Chang, Peter Eckersley, Phu Mon Htut, Pinyu Hwang, Piotr Miłkowski, Piyush Patil, Pouya Pezeshkpour, Priti Oli, Qiaozhu Mei, Qing Lyu, Qinlang Chen, Rabin Banjade, Rachel Etta Rudolph, Raefer Gabriel, Rahel Habacker, Ramón Risco Delgado, Raphaël Millière, Rhythm Garg, Richard Barnes, Rif A. Saurous, Riku Arakawa, Robbe Raymaekers, Robert Frank, Rohan Sikand, Roman Novak, Roman Sitelew, Ronan LeBras, Rosanne Liu, Rowan Jacobs, Rui Zhang, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Ryan Chi, Ryan Lee, Ryan Stovall, Ryan Teehan, Rylan Yang, Sahib Singh, Saif M. Mohammad, Sajant Anand, Sam Dillavou, Sam Shleifer, Sam Wiseman, Samuel Gruetter, Samuel R. Bowman, Samuel S. Schoenholz, Sanghyun Han, Sanjeev Kwatra, Sarah A. Rous, Sarik Ghazarian, Sayan Ghosh, Sean Casey, Sebastian Bischoff, Sebastian Gehrmann, Sebastian Schuster, Sepideh Sadeghi, Shadi Hamdan, Sharon Zhou, Shashank Srivastava, Sherry Shi, Shikhar Singh, Shima Asaadi, Shixiang Shane Gu, Shubh Pachchigar, Shubham Toshniwal, Shyam Upadhyay, Shyamolima, Debnath, Siamak Shakeri, Simon Thormeyer, Simone Melzi, Siva Reddy, Sneha Priscilla Makini, Soo-Hwan Lee, Spencer Torene, Sriharsha Hatwar, Stanislas Dehaene, Stefan Divic, Stefano Ermon, Stella Biderman, Stephanie Lin, Stephen Prasad, Steven T. Piantadosi, Stuart M. Shieber, Summer Misherghi, Svetlana Kiritchenko, Swaroop Mishra, Tal Linzen, Tal Schuster, Tao Li, Tao Yu, Tariq Ali, Tatsu Hashimoto, Te-Lin Wu, Théo Desbordes, Theodore Rothschild, Thomas Phan, Tianle Wang, Tiberius Nkinyili, Timo Schick, Timofei Kornev, Timothy Telleen-Lawton, Titus Tunduny, Tobias Gerstenberg, Trenton Chang, Trishala Neeraj, Tushar Khot, Tyler Shultz, Uri Shaham, Vedant Misra, Vera Demberg, Victoria Nyamai, Vikas Raunak, Vinay Ramasesh, Vinay Uday Prabhu, Vishakh Padmakumar, Vivek Srikumar, William Fedus, William Saunders, William Zhang, Wout Vossen, Xiang Ren, Xiaoyu Tong, Xinran Zhao, Xinyi Wu, Xudong Shen, Yadollah Yaghoobzadeh, Yair Lakretz, Yangqiu Song, Yasaman Bahri, Yejin Choi, Yichi Yang, Yiding Hao, Yifu Chen, Yonatan Belinkov, Yu Hou, Yufang Hou, Yuntao Bai, Zachary Seid, Zhuoye Zhao, Zijian Wang, Zijie J. Wang, Zirui Wang, Ziyi Wu

Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.

* 27 pages, 17 figures + references and appendices, repo: https://github.com/google/BIG-bench 
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Large image datasets: A pyrrhic win for computer vision?

Jun 24, 2020
Vinay Uday Prabhu, Abeba Birhane

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In this paper we investigate problematic practices and consequences of large scale vision datasets. We examine broad issues such as the question of consent and justice as well as specific concerns such as the inclusion of verifiably pornographic images in datasets. Taking the ImageNet-ILSVRC-2012 dataset as an example, we perform a cross-sectional model-based quantitative census covering factors such as age, gender, NSFW content scoring, class-wise accuracy, human-cardinality-analysis, and the semanticity of the image class information in order to statistically investigate the extent and subtleties of ethical transgressions. We then use the census to help hand-curate a look-up-table of images in the ImageNet-ILSVRC-2012 dataset that fall into the categories of verifiably pornographic: shot in a non-consensual setting (up-skirt), beach voyeuristic, and exposed private parts. We survey the landscape of harm and threats both society broadly and individuals face due to uncritical and ill-considered dataset curation practices. We then propose possible courses of correction and critique the pros and cons of these. We have duly open-sourced all of the code and the census meta-datasets generated in this endeavor for the computer vision community to build on. By unveiling the severity of the threats, our hope is to motivate the constitution of mandatory Institutional Review Boards (IRB) for large scale dataset curation processes.

* Github: https://github.com/vinayprabhu/Dataset_audits 
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Model Weight Theft With Just Noise Inputs: The Curious Case of the Petulant Attacker

Dec 19, 2019
Nicholas Roberts, Vinay Uday Prabhu, Matthew McAteer

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This paper explores the scenarios under which an attacker can claim that 'Noise and access to the softmax layer of the model is all you need' to steal the weights of a convolutional neural network whose architecture is already known. We were able to achieve 96% test accuracy using the stolen MNIST model and 82% accuracy using the stolen KMNIST model learned using only i.i.d. Bernoulli noise inputs. We posit that this theft-susceptibility of the weights is indicative of the complexity of the dataset and propose a new metric that captures the same. The goal of this dissemination is to not just showcase how far knowing the architecture can take you in terms of model stealing, but to also draw attention to this rather idiosyncratic weight learnability aspects of CNNs spurred by i.i.d. noise input. We also disseminate some initial results obtained with using the Ising probability distribution in lieu of the i.i.d. Bernoulli distribution.

* Presented at the Security and Privacy of Machine Learning Workshop, 36th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2019), Long Beach, California, USA 
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Deep Connectomics Networks: Neural Network Architectures Inspired by Neuronal Networks

Dec 19, 2019
Nicholas Roberts, Dian Ang Yap, Vinay Uday Prabhu

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The interplay between inter-neuronal network topology and cognition has been studied deeply by connectomics researchers and network scientists, which is crucial towards understanding the remarkable efficacy of biological neural networks. Curiously, the deep learning revolution that revived neural networks has not paid much attention to topological aspects. The architectures of deep neural networks (DNNs) do not resemble their biological counterparts in the topological sense. We bridge this gap by presenting initial results of Deep Connectomics Networks (DCNs) as DNNs with topologies inspired by real-world neuronal networks. We show high classification accuracy obtained by DCNs whose architecture was inspired by the biological neuronal networks of C. Elegans and the mouse visual cortex.

* Presented at the Real Neurons & Hidden Units Workshop, 33rd Conference on Neural Information ProcessingSystems (NeurIPS 2019), Vancouver, Canada 
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Grassmannian Packings in Neural Networks: Learning with Maximal Subspace Packings for Diversity and Anti-Sparsity

Nov 18, 2019
Dian Ang Yap, Nicholas Roberts, Vinay Uday Prabhu

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Kernel sparsity ("dying ReLUs") and lack of diversity are commonly observed in CNN kernels, which decreases model capacity. Drawing inspiration from information theory and wireless communications, we demonstrate the intersection of coding theory and deep learning through the Grassmannian subspace packing problem in CNNs. We propose Grassmannian packings for initial kernel layers to be initialized maximally far apart based on chordal or Fubini-Study distance. Convolutional kernels initialized with Grassmannian packings exhibit diverse features and obtain diverse representations. We show that Grassmannian packings, especially in the initial layers, address kernel sparsity and encourage diversity, while improving classification accuracy across shallow and deep CNNs with better convergence rates.

* Presented at Bayesian Deep Learning and Workshop on Information Theory and Machine Learning, 33rd Conference on Neural Information ProcessingSystems (NeurIPS 2019), Vancouver, Canada 
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Kannada-MNIST: A new handwritten digits dataset for the Kannada language

Aug 03, 2019
Vinay Uday Prabhu

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In this paper, we disseminate a new handwritten digits-dataset, termed Kannada-MNIST, for the Kannada script, that can potentially serve as a direct drop-in replacement for the original MNIST dataset. In addition to this dataset, we disseminate an additional real world handwritten dataset (with $10k$ images), which we term as the Dig-MNIST dataset that can serve as an out-of-domain test dataset. We also duly open source all the code as well as the raw scanned images along with the scanner settings so that researchers who want to try out different signal processing pipelines can perform end-to-end comparisons. We provide high level morphological comparisons with the MNIST dataset and provide baselines accuracies for the dataset disseminated. The initial baselines obtained using an oft-used CNN architecture ($96.8\%$ for the main test-set and $76.1\%$ for the Dig-MNIST test-set) indicate that these datasets do provide a sterner challenge with regards to generalizability than MNIST or the KMNIST datasets. We also hope this dissemination will spur the creation of similar datasets for all the languages that use different symbols for the numeral digits.

* The companion github repository for this paper is : https://github.com/vinayprabhu/Kannada_MNIST 
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Understanding Adversarial Robustness Through Loss Landscape Geometries

Jul 22, 2019
Vinay Uday Prabhu, Dian Ang Yap, Joyce Xu, John Whaley

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The pursuit of explaining and improving generalization in deep learning has elicited efforts both in regularization techniques as well as visualization techniques of the loss surface geometry. The latter is related to the intuition prevalent in the community that flatter local optima leads to lower generalization error. In this paper, we harness the state-of-the-art "filter normalization" technique of loss-surface visualization to qualitatively understand the consequences of using adversarial training data augmentation as the explicit regularization technique of choice. Much to our surprise, we discover that this oft deployed adversarial augmentation technique does not actually result in "flatter" loss-landscapes, which requires rethinking adversarial training generalization, and the relationship between generalization and loss landscapes geometries.

* Presented at the ICML 2019 Workshop on Uncertainty and Robustness in Deep Learning, and CVPR 2019 Workshop on The Bright and Dark Sides of Computer Vision: Challenges and Opportunities for Privacy and Security (CV-COPS) 
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Covering up bias in CelebA-like datasets with Markov blankets: A post-hoc cure for attribute prior avoidance

Jul 22, 2019
Vinay Uday Prabhu, Dian Ang Yap, Alexander Wang, John Whaley

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Attribute prior avoidance entails subconscious or willful non-modeling of (meta)attributes that datasets are oft born with, such as the 40 semantic facial attributes associated with the CelebA and CelebA-HQ datasets. The consequences of this infirmity, we discover, are especially stark in state-of-the-art deep generative models learned on these datasets that just model the pixel-space measurements, resulting in an inter-attribute bias-laden latent space. This viscerally manifests itself when we perform face manipulation experiments based on latent vector interpolations. In this paper, we address this and propose a post-hoc solution that utilizes an Ising attribute prior learned in the attribute space and showcase its efficacy via qualitative experiments.

* Accepted for presentation at the first workshop on Invertible Neural Networks and Normalizing Flows (ICML 2019), Long Beach, CA, USA 
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Fonts-2-Handwriting: A Seed-Augment-Train framework for universal digit classification

May 16, 2019
Vinay Uday Prabhu, Sanghyun Han, Dian Ang Yap, Mihail Douhaniaris, Preethi Seshadri, John Whaley

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In this paper, we propose a Seed-Augment-Train/Transfer (SAT) framework that contains a synthetic seed image dataset generation procedure for languages with different numeral systems using freely available open font file datasets. This seed dataset of images is then augmented to create a purely synthetic training dataset, which is in turn used to train a deep neural network and test on held-out real world handwritten digits dataset spanning five Indic scripts, Kannada, Tamil, Gujarati, Malayalam, and Devanagari. We showcase the efficacy of this approach both qualitatively, by training a Boundary-seeking GAN (BGAN) that generates realistic digit images in the five languages, and also quantitatively by testing a CNN trained on the synthetic data on the real-world datasets. This establishes not only an interesting nexus between the font-datasets-world and transfer learning but also provides a recipe for universal-digit classification in any script.

* Published as a workshop paper at ICLR 2019 (DeepGenStruct-2019) 
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