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There is a long history in machine learning of model ensembling, beginning with boosting and bagging and continuing to the present day. Much of this history has focused on combining models for classification and regression, but recently there is interest in more complex settings such as ensembling policies in reinforcement learning. Strong connections have also emerged between ensembling and multicalibration techniques. In this work, we further investigate these themes by considering a setting in which we wish to ensemble models for multidimensional output predictions that are in turn used for downstream optimization. More precisely, we imagine we are given a number of models mapping a state space to multidimensional real-valued predictions. These predictions form the coefficients of a linear objective that we would like to optimize under specified constraints. The fundamental question we address is how to improve and combine such models in a way that outperforms the best of them in the downstream optimization problem. We apply multicalibration techniques that lead to two provably efficient and convergent algorithms. The first of these (the white box approach) requires being given models that map states to output predictions, while the second (the \emph{black box} approach) requires only policies (mappings from states to solutions to the optimization problem). For both, we provide convergence and utility guarantees. We conclude by investigating the performance and behavior of the two algorithms in a controlled experimental setting.

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We study a repeated contracting setting in which a Principal adaptively chooses amongst $k$ Agents at each of $T$ rounds. The Agents are non-myopic, and so a mechanism for the Principal induces a $T$-round extensive form game amongst the Agents. We give several results aimed at understanding an under-explored aspect of contract theory -- the game induced when choosing an Agent to contract with. First, we show that this game admits a pure-strategy \emph{non-responsive} equilibrium amongst the Agents -- informally an equilibrium in which the Agent's actions depend on the history of realized states of nature, but not on the history of each other's actions, and so avoids the complexities of collusion and threats. Next, we show that if the Principal selects Agents using a \emph{monotone} bandit algorithm, then for any concave contract, in any such equilibrium, the Principal obtains no regret to contracting with the best Agent in hindsight -- not just given their realized actions, but also to the counterfactual world in which they had offered a guaranteed $T$-round contract to the best Agent in hindsight, which would have induced a different sequence of actions. Finally, we show that if the Principal selects Agents using a monotone bandit algorithm which guarantees no swap-regret, then the Principal can additionally offer only limited liability contracts (in which the Agent never needs to pay the Principal) while getting no-regret to the counterfactual world in which she offered a linear contract to the best Agent in hindsight -- despite the fact that linear contracts are not limited liability. We instantiate this theorem by demonstrating the existence of a monotone no swap-regret bandit algorithm, which to our knowledge has not previously appeared in the literature.

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This work presents a novel label-efficient selfsupervised representation learning-based approach for classifying diabetic retinopathy (DR) images in cross-domain settings. Most of the existing DR image classification methods are based on supervised learning which requires a lot of time-consuming and expensive medical domain experts-annotated data for training. The proposed approach uses the prior learning from the source DR image dataset to classify images drawn from the target datasets. The image representations learned from the unlabeled source domain dataset through contrastive learning are used to classify DR images from the target domain dataset. Moreover, the proposed approach requires a few labeled images to perform successfully on DR image classification tasks in cross-domain settings. The proposed work experiments with four publicly available datasets: EyePACS, APTOS 2019, MESSIDOR-I, and Fundus Images for self-supervised representation learning-based DR image classification in cross-domain settings. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results on binary and multiclassification of DR images, even in cross-domain settings. The proposed method outperforms the existing DR image binary and multi-class classification methods proposed in the literature. The proposed method is also validated qualitatively using class activation maps, revealing that the method can learn explainable image representations. The source code and trained models are published on GitHub.

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This work presents a novel domain adaption paradigm for studying contrastive self-supervised representation learning and knowledge transfer using remote sensing satellite data. Major state-of-the-art remote sensing visual domain efforts primarily focus on fully supervised learning approaches that rely entirely on human annotations. On the other hand, human annotations in remote sensing satellite imagery are always subject to limited quantity due to high costs and domain expertise, making transfer learning a viable alternative. The proposed approach investigates the knowledge transfer of selfsupervised representations across the distinct source and target data distributions in depth in the remote sensing data domain. In this arrangement, self-supervised contrastive learning-based pretraining is performed on the source dataset, and downstream tasks are performed on the target datasets in a round-robin fashion. Experiments are conducted on three publicly available datasets, UC Merced Landuse (UCMD), SIRI-WHU, and MLRSNet, for different downstream classification tasks versus label efficiency. In self-supervised knowledge transfer, the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance with label efficiency labels and outperforms a fully supervised setting. A more in-depth qualitative examination reveals consistent evidence for explainable representation learning. The source code and trained models are published on GitHub.

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Prakash Chandra Chhipa, Muskan Chopra, Gopal Mengi, Varun Gupta, Richa Upadhyay, Meenakshi Subhash Chippa, Kanjar De, Rajkumar Saini, Seiichi Uchida, Marcus Liwicki

This work investigates the unexplored usability of self-supervised representation learning in the direction of functional knowledge transfer. In this work, functional knowledge transfer is achieved by joint optimization of self-supervised learning pseudo task and supervised learning task, improving supervised learning task performance. Recent progress in self-supervised learning uses a large volume of data, which becomes a constraint for its applications on small-scale datasets. This work shares a simple yet effective joint training framework that reinforces human-supervised task learning by learning self-supervised representations just-in-time and vice versa. Experiments on three public datasets from different visual domains, Intel Image, CIFAR, and APTOS, reveal a consistent track of performance improvements on classification tasks during joint optimization. Qualitative analysis also supports the robustness of learnt representations. Source code and trained models are available on GitHub.

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Unconstrained Asian roads often involve poor infrastructure, affecting overall road safety. Missing traffic signs are a regular part of such roads. Missing or non-existing object detection has been studied for locating missing curbs and estimating reasonable regions for pedestrians on road scene images. Such methods involve analyzing task-specific single object cues. In this paper, we present the first and most challenging video dataset for missing objects, with multiple types of traffic signs for which the cues are visible without the signs in the scenes. We refer to it as the Missing Traffic Signs Video Dataset (MTSVD). MTSVD is challenging compared to the previous works in two aspects i) The traffic signs are generally not present in the vicinity of their cues, ii) The traffic signs cues are diverse and unique. Also, MTSVD is the first publicly available missing object dataset. To train the models for identifying missing signs, we complement our dataset with 10K traffic sign tracks, with 40 percent of the traffic signs having cues visible in the scenes. For identifying missing signs, we propose the Cue-driven Contextual Attention units (CueCAn), which we incorporate in our model encoder. We first train the encoder to classify the presence of traffic sign cues and then train the entire segmentation model end-to-end to localize missing traffic signs. Quantitative and qualitative analysis shows that CueCAn significantly improves the performance of base models.

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In this paper, we study the MNL-Bandit problem in a non-stationary environment and present an algorithm with worst-case dynamic regret of $\tilde{O}\left( \min \left\{ \sqrt{NTL}\;,\; N^{\frac{1}{3}}(\Delta_{\infty}^{K})^{\frac{1}{3}} T^{\frac{2}{3}} + \sqrt{NT}\right\}\right)$. Here $N$ is the number of arms, $L$ is the number of switches and $\Delta_{\infty}^K$ is a variation measure of the unknown parameters. We also show that our algorithm is near-optimal (up to logarithmic factors). Our algorithm builds upon the epoch-based algorithm for stationary MNL-Bandit in Agrawal et al. 2016. However, non-stationarity poses several challenges and we introduce new techniques and ideas to address these. In particular, we give a tight characterization for the bias introduced in the estimators due to non stationarity and derive new concentration bounds.

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We show how to take a regression function $\hat{f}$ that is appropriately ``multicalibrated'' and efficiently post-process it into an approximately error minimizing classifier satisfying a large variety of fairness constraints. The post-processing requires no labeled data, and only a modest amount of unlabeled data and computation. The computational and sample complexity requirements of computing $\hat f$ are comparable to the requirements for solving a single fair learning task optimally, but it can in fact be used to solve many different downstream fairness-constrained learning problems efficiently. Our post-processing method easily handles intersecting groups, generalizing prior work on post-processing regression functions to satisfy fairness constraints that only applied to disjoint groups. Our work extends recent work showing that multicalibrated regression functions are ``omnipredictors'' (i.e. can be post-processed to optimally solve unconstrained ERM problems) to constrained optimization.

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We give a simple, generic conformal prediction method for sequential prediction that achieves target empirical coverage guarantees against adversarially chosen data. It is computationally lightweight -- comparable to split conformal prediction -- but does not require having a held-out validation set, and so all data can be used for training models from which to derive a conformal score. It gives stronger than marginal coverage guarantees in two ways. First, it gives threshold calibrated prediction sets that have correct empirical coverage even conditional on the threshold used to form the prediction set from the conformal score. Second, the user can specify an arbitrary collection of subsets of the feature space -- possibly intersecting -- and the coverage guarantees also hold conditional on membership in each of these subsets. We call our algorithm MVP, short for MultiValid Prediction. We give both theory and an extensive set of empirical evaluations.

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We consider the problem of controlling a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) system over a finite horizon $T$ with fixed and known cost matrices $Q,R$, but unknown and non-stationary dynamics $\{A_t, B_t\}$. The sequence of dynamics matrices can be arbitrary, but with a total variation, $V_T$, assumed to be $o(T)$ and unknown to the controller. Under the assumption that a sequence of stabilizing, but potentially sub-optimal controllers is available for all $t$, we present an algorithm that achieves the optimal dynamic regret of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}\left(V_T^{2/5}T^{3/5}\right)$. With piece-wise constant dynamics, our algorithm achieves the optimal regret of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\sqrt{ST})$ where $S$ is the number of switches. The crux of our algorithm is an adaptive non-stationarity detection strategy, which builds on an approach recently developed for contextual Multi-armed Bandit problems. We also argue that non-adaptive forgetting (e.g., restarting or using sliding window learning with a static window size) may not be regret optimal for the LQR problem, even when the window size is optimally tuned with the knowledge of $V_T$. The main technical challenge in the analysis of our algorithm is to prove that the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator has a small bias when the parameter to be estimated is non-stationary. Our analysis also highlights that the key motif driving the regret is that the LQR problem is in spirit a bandit problem with linear feedback and locally quadratic cost. This motif is more universal than the LQR problem itself, and therefore we believe our results should find wider application.

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