Although Shapley values have been shown to be highly effective for identifying harmful training instances, dataset size and model complexity constraints limit the ability to apply Shapley-based data valuation to fine-tuning large pre-trained language models. To address this, we propose TS-DShapley, an algorithm that reduces computational cost of Shapley-based data valuation through: 1) an efficient sampling-based method that aggregates Shapley values computed from subsets for valuation of the entire training set, and 2) a value transfer method that leverages value information extracted from a simple classifier trained using representations from the target language model. Our experiments applying TS-DShapley to select data for fine-tuning BERT-based language models on benchmark natural language understanding (NLU) datasets show that TS-DShapley outperforms existing data selection methods. Further, TS-DShapley can filter fine-tuning data to increase language model performance compared to training with the full fine-tuning dataset.
Data valuation, or the valuation of individual datum contributions, has seen growing interest in machine learning due to its demonstrable efficacy for tasks such as noisy label detection. In particular, due to the desirable axiomatic properties, several Shapley value approximation methods have been proposed. In these methods, the value function is typically defined as the predictive accuracy over the entire development set. However, this limits the ability to differentiate between training instances that are helpful or harmful to their own classes. Intuitively, instances that harm their own classes may be noisy or mislabeled and should receive a lower valuation than helpful instances. In this work, we propose CS-Shapley, a Shapley value with a new value function that discriminates between training instances' in-class and out-of-class contributions. Our theoretical analysis shows the proposed value function is (essentially) the unique function that satisfies two desirable properties for evaluating data values in classification. Further, our experiments on two benchmark evaluation tasks (data removal and noisy label detection) and four classifiers demonstrate the effectiveness of CS-Shapley over existing methods. Lastly, we evaluate the "transferability" of data values estimated from one classifier to others, and our results suggest Shapley-based data valuation is transferable for application across different models.
Text style transfer involves rewriting the content of a source sentence in a target style. Despite there being a number of style tasks with available data, there has been limited systematic discussion of how text style datasets relate to each other. This understanding, however, is likely to have implications for selecting multiple data sources for model training. While it is prudent to consider inherent stylistic properties when determining these relationships, we also must consider how a style is realized in a particular dataset. In this paper, we conduct several empirical analyses of existing text style datasets. Based on our results, we propose a categorization of stylistic and dataset properties to consider when utilizing or comparing text style datasets.
We observe a severe under-reporting of the different kinds of errors that Natural Language Generation systems make. This is a problem, because mistakes are an important indicator of where systems should still be improved. If authors only report overall performance metrics, the research community is left in the dark about the specific weaknesses that are exhibited by `state-of-the-art' research. Next to quantifying the extent of error under-reporting, this position paper provides recommendations for error identification, analysis and reporting.
* Prefinal version, accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the
14th International Conference on Natural Language Generation (INLG 2021,
Aberdeen). Comments welcome