Hyperspectral imaging (HI) has emerged as a powerful tool in diverse fields such as medical diagnosis, industrial inspection, and agriculture, owing to its ability to detect subtle differences in physical properties through high spectral resolution. However, hyperspectral images (HSIs) are often quite noisy because of narrow band spectral filtering. To reduce the noise in HSI data cubes, both model-driven and learning-based denoising algorithms have been proposed. However, model-based approaches rely on hand-crafted priors and hyperparameters, while learning-based methods are incapable of estimating the inherent degradation patterns and noise distributions in the imaging procedure, which could inform supervised learning. Secondly, learning-based algorithms predominantly rely on CNN and fail to capture long-range dependencies, resulting in limited interpretability. This paper proposes a Degradation-Noise-Aware Unfolding Network (DNA-Net) that addresses these issues. Firstly, DNA-Net models sparse noise, Gaussian noise, and explicitly represent image prior using transformer. Then the model is unfolded into an end-to-end network, the hyperparameters within the model are estimated from the noisy HSI and degradation model and utilizes them to control each iteration. Additionally, we introduce a novel U-Shaped Local-Non-local-Spectral Transformer (U-LNSA) that captures spectral correlation, local contents, and non-local dependencies simultaneously. By integrating U-LNSA into DNA-Net, we present the first Transformer-based deep unfolding HSI denoising method. Experimental results show that DNA-Net outperforms state-of-the-art methods, and the modeling of noise distributions helps in cases with heavy noise.
Hyperspectral imaging systems that use multispectral filter arrays (MSFA) capture only one spectral component in each pixel. Hyperspectral demosaicing is used to recover the non-measured components. While deep learning methods have shown promise in this area, they still suffer from several challenges, including limited modeling of non-local dependencies, lack of consideration of the periodic MSFA pattern that could be linked to periodic artifacts, and difficulty in recovering high-frequency details. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a novel de-mosaicing framework, the MSFA-frequency-aware Transformer network (FDM-Net). FDM-Net integrates a novel MSFA-frequency-aware multi-head self-attention mechanism (MaFormer) and a filter-based Fourier zero-padding method to reconstruct high pass components with greater difficulty and low pass components with relative ease, separately. The advantage of Maformer is that it can leverage the MSFA information and non-local dependencies present in the data. Additionally, we introduce a joint spatial and frequency loss to transfer MSFA information and enhance training on frequency components that are hard to recover. Our experimental results demonstrate that FDM-Net outperforms state-of-the-art methods with 6dB PSNR, and reconstructs high-fidelity details successfully.
Pixel binning based Quad sensors have emerged as a promising solution to overcome the hardware limitations of compact cameras in low-light imaging. However, binning results in lower spatial resolution and non-Bayer CFA artifacts. To address these challenges, we propose a dual-head joint remosaicing and denoising network (DJRD), which enables the conversion of noisy Quad Bayer and standard noise-free Bayer pattern without any resolution loss. DJRD includes a newly designed Quad Bayer remosaicing (QB-Re) block, integrated denoising modules based on Swin-transformer and multi-scale wavelet transform. The QB-Re block constructs the convolution kernel based on the CFA pattern to achieve a periodic color distribution in the perceptual field, which is used to extract exact spectral information and reduce color misalignment. The integrated Swin-Transformer and multi-scale wavelet transform capture non-local dependencies, frequency and location information to effectively reduce practical noise. By identifying challenging patches utilizing Moire and zipper detection metrics, we enable our model to concentrate on difficult patches during the post-training phase, which enhances the model's performance in hard cases. Our proposed model outperforms competing models by approximately 3dB, without additional complexity in hardware or software.
Spatial-Spectral Total Variation (SSTV) can quantify local smoothness of image structures, so it is widely used in hyperspectral image (HSI) processing tasks. Essentially, SSTV assumes a sparse structure of gradient maps calculated along the spatial and spectral directions. In fact, these gradient tensors are not only sparse, but also (approximately) low-rank under FFT, which we have verified by numerical tests and theoretical analysis. Based on this fact, we propose a novel TV regularization to simultaneously characterize the sparsity and low-rank priors of the gradient map (LRSTV). The new regularization not only imposes sparsity on the gradient map itself, but also penalize the rank on the gradient map after Fourier transform along the spectral dimension. It naturally encodes the sparsity and lowrank priors of the gradient map, and thus is expected to reflect the inherent structure of the original image more faithfully. Further, we use LRSTV to replace conventional SSTV and embed it in the HSI processing model to improve its performance. Experimental results on multiple public data-sets with heavy mixed noise show that the proposed model can get 1.5dB improvement of PSNR.