Deep learning methods are transforming research, enabling new techniques, and ultimately leading to new discoveries. As the demand for more capable AI models continues to grow, we are now entering an era of Trillion Parameter Models (TPM), or models with more than a trillion parameters -- such as Huawei's PanGu-$\Sigma$. We describe a vision for the ecosystem of TPM users and providers that caters to the specific needs of the scientific community. We then outline the significant technical challenges and open problems in system design for serving TPMs to enable scientific research and discovery. Specifically, we describe the requirements of a comprehensive software stack and interfaces to support the diverse and flexible requirements of researchers.
* 10 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in the proceedings of
the 10th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Big Data Computing,
Applications and Technologies (BDCAT2023)
The Dynamic PicoProbe at Argonne National Laboratory is undergoing upgrades that will enable it to produce up to 100s of GB of data per day. While this data is highly important for both fundamental science and industrial applications, there is currently limited on-site infrastructure to handle these high-volume data streams. We address this problem by providing a software architecture capable of supporting large-scale data transfers to the neighboring supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. To prepare for future scientific workflows, we implement two instructive use cases for hyperspectral and spatiotemporal datasets, which include: (i) off-site data transfer, (ii) machine learning/artificial intelligence and traditional data analysis approaches, and (iii) automatic metadata extraction and cataloging of experimental results. This infrastructure supports expected workloads and also provides domain scientists the ability to reinterrogate data from past experiments to yield additional scientific value and derive new insights.
Cross-silo privacy-preserving federated learning (PPFL) is a powerful tool to collaboratively train robust and generalized machine learning (ML) models without sharing sensitive (e.g., healthcare of financial) local data. To ease and accelerate the adoption of PPFL, we introduce APPFLx, a ready-to-use platform that provides privacy-preserving cross-silo federated learning as a service. APPFLx employs Globus authentication to allow users to easily and securely invite trustworthy collaborators for PPFL, implements several synchronous and asynchronous FL algorithms, streamlines the FL experiment launch process, and enables tracking and visualizing the life cycle of FL experiments, allowing domain experts and ML practitioners to easily orchestrate and evaluate cross-silo FL under one platform. APPFLx is available online at https://appflx.link
We present an end-to-end automated workflow that uses large-scale remote compute resources and an embedded GPU platform at the edge to enable AI/ML-accelerated real-time analysis of data collected for x-ray ptychography. Ptychography is a lensless method that is being used to image samples through a simultaneous numerical inversion of a large number of diffraction patterns from adjacent overlapping scan positions. This acquisition method can enable nanoscale imaging with x-rays and electrons, but this often requires very large experimental datasets and commensurately high turnaround times, which can limit experimental capabilities such as real-time experimental steering and low-latency monitoring. In this work, we introduce a software system that can automate ptychography data analysis tasks. We accelerate the data analysis pipeline by using a modified version of PtychoNN -- an ML-based approach to solve phase retrieval problem that shows two orders of magnitude speedup compared to traditional iterative methods. Further, our system coordinates and overlaps different data analysis tasks to minimize synchronization overhead between different stages of the workflow. We evaluate our workflow system with real-world experimental workloads from the 26ID beamline at Advanced Photon Source and ThetaGPU cluster at Argonne Leadership Computing Resources.
* 7 pages, 1 figure, to be published in High Performance Computing for
Imaging Conference, Electronic Imaging (HPCI 2023)
Applications that fuse machine learning and simulation can benefit from the use of multiple computing resources, with, for example, simulation codes running on highly parallel supercomputers and AI training and inference tasks on specialized accelerators. Here, we present our experiences deploying two AI-guided simulation workflows across such heterogeneous systems. A unique aspect of our approach is our use of cloud-hosted management services to manage challenging aspects of cross-resource authentication and authorization, function-as-a-service (FaaS) function invocation, and data transfer. We show that these methods can achieve performance parity with systems that rely on direct connection between resources. We achieve parity by integrating the FaaS system and data transfer capabilities with a system that passes data by reference among managers and workers, and a user-configurable steering algorithm to hide data transfer latencies. We anticipate that this ease of use can enable routine use of heterogeneous resources in computational science.
In many experiment-driven scientific domains, such as high-energy physics, material science, and cosmology, high data rate experiments impose hard constraints on data acquisition systems: collected data must either be indiscriminately stored for post-processing and analysis, thereby necessitating large storage capacity, or accurately filtered in real-time, thereby necessitating low-latency processing. Deep neural networks, effective in other filtering tasks, have not been widely employed in such data acquisition systems, due to design and deployment difficulties. We present an open source, lightweight, compiler framework, without any proprietary dependencies, OpenHLS, based on high-level synthesis techniques, for translating high-level representations of deep neural networks to low-level representations, suitable for deployment to near-sensor devices such as field-programmable gate arrays. We evaluate OpenHLS on various workloads and present a case-study implementation of a deep neural network for Bragg peak detection in the context of high-energy diffraction microscopy. We show OpenHLS is able to produce an implementation of the network with a throughput 4.8 $\mu$s/sample, which is approximately a 4$\times$ improvement over the existing implementation
Coherent microscopy techniques provide an unparalleled multi-scale view of materials across scientific and technological fields, from structural materials to quantum devices, from integrated circuits to biological cells. Driven by the construction of brighter sources and high-rate detectors, coherent X-ray microscopy methods like ptychography are poised to revolutionize nanoscale materials characterization. However, associated significant increases in data and compute needs mean that conventional approaches no longer suffice for recovering sample images in real-time from high-speed coherent imaging experiments. Here, we demonstrate a workflow that leverages artificial intelligence at the edge and high-performance computing to enable real-time inversion on X-ray ptychography data streamed directly from a detector at up to 2 kHz. The proposed AI-enabled workflow eliminates the sampling constraints imposed by traditional ptychography, allowing low dose imaging using orders of magnitude less data than required by traditional methods.
Research process automation--the reliable, efficient, and reproducible execution of linked sets of actions on scientific instruments, computers, data stores, and other resources--has emerged as an essential element of modern science. We report here on new services within the Globus research data management platform that enable the specification of diverse research processes as reusable sets of actions, flows, and the execution of such flows in heterogeneous research environments. To support flows with broad spatial extent (e.g., from scientific instrument to remote data center) and temporal extent (from seconds to weeks), these Globus automation services feature: 1) cloud hosting for reliable execution of even long-lived flows despite sporadic failures; 2) a declarative notation, and extensible asynchronous action provider API, for defining and executing a wide variety of actions and flow specifications involving arbitrary resources; 3) authorization delegation mechanisms for secure invocation of actions. These services permit researchers to outsource and automate the management of a broad range of research tasks to a reliable, scalable, and secure cloud platform. We present use cases for Globus automation services, describe the design and implementation of the services, present microbenchmark studies, and review experiences applying the services in a range of applications
A concise and measurable set of FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) principles for scientific data is transforming the state-of-practice for data management and stewardship, supporting and enabling discovery and innovation. Learning from this initiative, and acknowledging the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) in the practice of science and engineering, we introduce a set of practical, concise, and measurable FAIR principles for AI models. We showcase how to create and share FAIR data and AI models within a unified computational framework combining the following elements: the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the Materials Data Facility, the Data and Learning Hub for Science, and funcX, and the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), in particular the ThetaGPU supercomputer and the SambaNova DataScale system at the ALCF AI Testbed. We describe how this domain-agnostic computational framework may be harnessed to enable autonomous AI-driven discovery.