This technical report provides a detailed overview of Endoscapes, a dataset of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) videos with highly intricate annotations targeted at automated assessment of the Critical View of Safety (CVS). Endoscapes comprises 201 LC videos with frames annotated sparsely but regularly with segmentation masks, bounding boxes, and CVS assessment by three different clinical experts. Altogether, there are 11090 frames annotated with CVS and 1933 frames annotated with tool and anatomy bounding boxes from the 201 videos, as well as an additional 422 frames from 50 of the 201 videos annotated with tool and anatomy segmentation masks. In this report, we provide detailed dataset statistics (size, class distribution, dataset splits, etc.) and a comprehensive performance benchmark for instance segmentation, object detection, and CVS prediction. The dataset and model checkpoints are publically available at https://github.com/CAMMA-public/Endoscapes.
This technical report presents MOSaiC 3.6.2, a web-based collaborative platform designed for the annotation and evaluation of medical videos. MOSaiC is engineered to facilitate video-based assessment and accelerate surgical data science projects. We provide an overview of MOSaiC's key functionalities, encompassing group and video management, annotation tools, ontologies, assessment capabilities, and user administration. Finally, we briefly describe several medical data science studies where MOSaiC has been instrumental in the dataset development.
Recently, spatiotemporal graphs have emerged as a concise and elegant manner of representing video clips in an object-centric fashion, and have shown to be useful for downstream tasks such as action recognition. In this work, we investigate the use of latent spatiotemporal graphs to represent a surgical video in terms of the constituent anatomical structures and tools and their evolving properties over time. To build the graphs, we first predict frame-wise graphs using a pre-trained model, then add temporal edges between nodes based on spatial coherence and visual and semantic similarity. Unlike previous approaches, we incorporate long-term temporal edges in our graphs to better model the evolution of the surgical scene and increase robustness to temporary occlusions. We also introduce a novel graph-editing module that incorporates prior knowledge and temporal coherence to correct errors in the graph, enabling improved downstream task performance. Using our graph representations, we evaluate two downstream tasks, critical view of safety prediction and surgical phase recognition, obtaining strong results that demonstrate the quality and flexibility of the learned representations. Code is available at github.com/CAMMA-public/SurgLatentGraph.
Purpose: General consensus amongst researchers and industry points to a lack of large, representative annotated datasets as the biggest obstacle to progress in the field of surgical data science. Self-supervised learning represents a solution to part of this problem, removing the reliance on annotations. However, the robustness of current self-supervised learning methods to domain shifts remains unclear, limiting our understanding of its utility for leveraging diverse sources of surgical data. Methods: In this work, we employ self-supervised learning to flexibly leverage diverse surgical datasets, thereby learning taskagnostic representations that can be used for various surgical downstream tasks. Based on this approach, to elucidate the impact of pre-training on downstream task performance, we explore 22 different pre-training dataset combinations by modulating three variables: source hospital, type of surgical procedure, and pre-training scale (number of videos). We then finetune the resulting model initializations on three diverse downstream tasks: namely, phase recognition and critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and phase recognition in laparoscopic hysterectomy. Results: Controlled experimentation highlights sizable boosts in performance across various tasks, datasets, and labeling budgets. However, this performance is intricately linked to the composition of the pre-training dataset, robustly proven through several study stages. Conclusion: The composition of pre-training datasets can severely affect the effectiveness of SSL methods for various downstream tasks and should critically inform future data collection efforts to scale the application of SSL methodologies. Keywords: Self-Supervised Learning, Transfer Learning, Surgical Computer Vision, Endoscopic Videos, Critical View of Safety, Phase Recognition
Recent advancements in surgical computer vision applications have been driven by fully-supervised methods, primarily using only visual data. These methods rely on manually annotated surgical videos to predict a fixed set of object categories, limiting their generalizability to unseen surgical procedures and downstream tasks. In this work, we put forward the idea that the surgical video lectures available through open surgical e-learning platforms can provide effective supervisory signals for multi-modal representation learning without relying on manual annotations. We address the surgery-specific linguistic challenges present in surgical video lectures by employing multiple complementary automatic speech recognition systems to generate text transcriptions. We then present a novel method, SurgVLP - Surgical Vision Language Pre-training, for multi-modal representation learning. SurgVLP constructs a new contrastive learning objective to align video clip embeddings with the corresponding multiple text embeddings by bringing them together within a joint latent space. To effectively show the representation capability of the learned joint latent space, we introduce several vision-and-language tasks for surgery, such as text-based video retrieval, temporal activity grounding, and video captioning, as benchmarks for evaluation. We further demonstrate that without using any labeled ground truth, our approach can be employed for traditional vision-only surgical downstream tasks, such as surgical tool, phase, and triplet recognition. The code will be made available at https://github.com/CAMMA-public/SurgVLP
Automatic recognition of fine-grained surgical activities, called steps, is a challenging but crucial task for intelligent intra-operative computer assistance. The development of current vision-based activity recognition methods relies heavily on a high volume of manually annotated data. This data is difficult and time-consuming to generate and requires domain-specific knowledge. In this work, we propose to use coarser and easier-to-annotate activity labels, namely phases, as weak supervision to learn step recognition with fewer step annotated videos. We introduce a step-phase dependency loss to exploit the weak supervision signal. We then employ a Single-Stage Temporal Convolutional Network (SS-TCN) with a ResNet-50 backbone, trained in an end-to-end fashion from weakly annotated videos, for temporal activity segmentation and recognition. We extensively evaluate and show the effectiveness of the proposed method on a large video dataset consisting of 40 laparoscopic gastric bypass procedures and the public benchmark CATARACTS containing 50 cataract surgeries.
Formalizing surgical activities as triplets of the used instruments, actions performed, and target anatomies is becoming a gold standard approach for surgical activity modeling. The benefit is that this formalization helps to obtain a more detailed understanding of tool-tissue interaction which can be used to develop better Artificial Intelligence assistance for image-guided surgery. Earlier efforts and the CholecTriplet challenge introduced in 2021 have put together techniques aimed at recognizing these triplets from surgical footage. Estimating also the spatial locations of the triplets would offer a more precise intraoperative context-aware decision support for computer-assisted intervention. This paper presents the CholecTriplet2022 challenge, which extends surgical action triplet modeling from recognition to detection. It includes weakly-supervised bounding box localization of every visible surgical instrument (or tool), as the key actors, and the modeling of each tool-activity in the form of <instrument, verb, target> triplet. The paper describes a baseline method and 10 new deep learning algorithms presented at the challenge to solve the task. It also provides thorough methodological comparisons of the methods, an in-depth analysis of the obtained results, their significance, and useful insights for future research directions and applications in surgery.
* MICCAI EndoVis CholecTriplet2022 challenge report. Submitted to
journal of Medical Image Analysis. 22 pages, 14 figures, 6 tables
Objective: To develop and validate a deep learning model for the identification of out-of-body images in endoscopic videos. Background: Surgical video analysis facilitates education and research. However, video recordings of endoscopic surgeries can contain privacy-sensitive information, especially if out-of-body scenes are recorded. Therefore, identification of out-of-body scenes in endoscopic videos is of major importance to preserve the privacy of patients and operating room staff. Methods: A deep learning model was trained and evaluated on an internal dataset of 12 different types of laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. External validation was performed on two independent multicentric test datasets of laparoscopic gastric bypass and cholecystectomy surgeries. All images extracted from the video datasets were annotated as inside or out-of-body. Model performance was evaluated compared to human ground truth annotations measuring the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC). Results: The internal dataset consisting of 356,267 images from 48 videos and the two multicentric test datasets consisting of 54,385 and 58,349 images from 10 and 20 videos, respectively, were annotated. Compared to ground truth annotations, the model identified out-of-body images with 99.97% ROC AUC on the internal test dataset. Mean $\pm$ standard deviation ROC AUC on the multicentric gastric bypass dataset was 99.94$\pm$0.07% and 99.71$\pm$0.40% on the multicentric cholecystectomy dataset, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed deep learning model can reliably identify out-of-body images in endoscopic videos. The trained model is publicly shared. This facilitates privacy preservation in surgical video analysis.
* Jo\"el L. Lavanchy and Armine Vardazaryan contributed equally and
share first co-authorship
Artificial intelligence is set to be deployed in operating rooms to improve surgical care. This early-stage clinical evaluation shows the feasibility of concurrently attaining real-time, high-quality predictions from several deep neural networks for endoscopic video analysis deployed for assistance during three laparoscopic cholecystectomies.
Assessing the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy requires accurate identification and localization of key anatomical structures, reasoning about their geometric relationships to one another, and determining the quality of their exposure. In this work, we propose to capture each of these aspects by modeling the surgical scene with a disentangled latent scene graph representation, which we can then process using a graph neural network. Unlike previous approaches using graph representations, we explicitly encode in our graphs semantic information such as object locations and shapes, class probabilities and visual features. We also incorporate an auxiliary image reconstruction objective to help train the latent graph representations. We demonstrate the value of these components through comprehensive ablation studies and achieve state-of-the-art results for critical view of safety prediction across multiple experimental settings.