A key feature of out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is to exploit a trained neural network by extracting statistical patterns and relationships through the multi-layer classifier to detect shifts in the expected input data distribution. Despite achieving solid results, several state-of-the-art methods rely on the penultimate or last layer outputs only, leaving behind valuable information for OOD detection. Methods that explore the multiple layers either require a special architecture or a supervised objective to do so. This work adopts an original approach based on a functional view of the network that exploits the sample's trajectories through the various layers and their statistical dependencies. It goes beyond multivariate features aggregation and introduces a baseline rooted in functional anomaly detection. In this new framework, OOD detection translates into detecting samples whose trajectories differ from the typical behavior characterized by the training set. We validate our method and empirically demonstrate its effectiveness in OOD detection compared to strong state-of-the-art baselines on computer vision benchmarks.
The evaluation of natural language processing (NLP) systems is crucial for advancing the field, but current benchmarking approaches often assume that all systems have scores available for all tasks, which is not always practical. In reality, several factors such as the cost of running baseline, private systems, computational limitations, or incomplete data may prevent some systems from being evaluated on entire tasks. This paper formalize an existing problem in NLP research: benchmarking when some systems scores are missing on the task, and proposes a novel approach to address it. Our method utilizes a compatible partial ranking approach to impute missing data, which is then aggregated using the Borda count method. It includes two refinements designed specifically for scenarios where either task-level or instance-level scores are available. We also introduce an extended benchmark, which contains over 131 million scores, an order of magnitude larger than existing benchmarks. We validate our methods and demonstrate their effectiveness in addressing the challenge of missing system evaluation on an entire task. This work highlights the need for more comprehensive benchmarking approaches that can handle real-world scenarios where not all systems are evaluated on the entire task.
Large-scale multilingual machine translation systems have demonstrated remarkable ability to translate directly between numerous languages, making them increasingly appealing for real-world applications. However, when deployed in the wild, these models may generate hallucinated translations which have the potential to severely undermine user trust and raise safety concerns. Existing research on hallucinations has primarily focused on small bilingual models trained on high-resource languages, leaving a gap in our understanding of hallucinations in massively multilingual models across diverse translation scenarios. In this work, we fill this gap by conducting a comprehensive analysis on both the M2M family of conventional neural machine translation models and ChatGPT, a general-purpose large language model~(LLM) that can be prompted for translation. Our investigation covers a broad spectrum of conditions, spanning over 100 translation directions across various resource levels and going beyond English-centric language pairs. We provide key insights regarding the prevalence, properties, and mitigation of hallucinations, paving the way towards more responsible and reliable machine translation systems.
As language models grow ever larger, the need for large-scale high-quality text datasets has never been more pressing, especially in multilingual settings. The BigScience workshop, a 1-year international and multidisciplinary initiative, was formed with the goal of researching and training large language models as a values-driven undertaking, putting issues of ethics, harm, and governance in the foreground. This paper documents the data creation and curation efforts undertaken by BigScience to assemble the Responsible Open-science Open-collaboration Text Sources (ROOTS) corpus, a 1.6TB dataset spanning 59 languages that was used to train the 176-billion-parameter BigScience Large Open-science Open-access Multilingual (BLOOM) language model. We further release a large initial subset of the corpus and analyses thereof, and hope to empower large-scale monolingual and multilingual modeling projects with both the data and the processing tools, as well as stimulate research around this large multilingual corpus.
Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is a rapidly growing field due to new robustness and security requirements driven by an increased number of AI-based systems. Existing OOD textual detectors often rely on an anomaly score (e.g., Mahalanobis distance) computed on the embedding output of the last layer of the encoder. In this work, we observe that OOD detection performance varies greatly depending on the task and layer output. More importantly, we show that the usual choice (the last layer) is rarely the best one for OOD detection and that far better results could be achieved if the best layer were picked. To leverage this observation, we propose a data-driven, unsupervised method to combine layer-wise anomaly scores. In addition, we extend classical textual OOD benchmarks by including classification tasks with a greater number of classes (up to 77), which reflects more realistic settings. On this augmented benchmark, we show that the proposed post-aggregation methods achieve robust and consistent results while removing manual feature selection altogether. Their performance achieves near oracle's best layer performance.
Neural machine translation (NMT) has become the de-facto standard in real-world machine translation applications. However, NMT models can unpredictably produce severely pathological translations, known as hallucinations, that seriously undermine user trust. It becomes thus crucial to implement effective preventive strategies to guarantee their proper functioning. In this paper, we address the problem of hallucination detection in NMT by following a simple intuition: as hallucinations are detached from the source content, they exhibit encoder-decoder attention patterns that are statistically different from those of good quality translations. We frame this problem with an optimal transport formulation and propose a fully unsupervised, plug-in detector that can be used with any attention-based NMT model. Experimental results show that our detector not only outperforms all previous model-based detectors, but is also competitive with detectors that employ large models trained on millions of samples.
As more and more conversational and translation systems are deployed in production, it is essential to implement and to develop effective control mechanisms guaranteeing their proper functioning and security. An essential component to ensure safe system behavior is out-of-distribution (OOD) detection, which aims at detecting whether an input sample is statistically far from the training distribution. Although OOD detection is a widely covered topic in classification tasks, it has received much less attention in text generation. This paper addresses the problem of OOD detection for machine translation and dialog generation from an operational perspective. Our contributions include: (i) RAINPROOF a Relative informAItioN Projection ODD detection framework; and (ii) a more operational evaluation setting for OOD detection. Surprisingly, we find that OOD detection is not necessarily aligned with task-specific measures. The OOD detector may filter out samples that are well processed by the model and keep samples that are not, leading to weaker performance. Our results show that RAINPROOF breaks this curse and achieve good results in OOD detection while increasing performance.
Deep learning methods have boosted the adoption of NLP systems in real-life applications. However, they turn out to be vulnerable to distribution shifts over time which may cause severe dysfunctions in production systems, urging practitioners to develop tools to detect out-of-distribution (OOD) samples through the lens of the neural network. In this paper, we introduce TRUSTED, a new OOD detector for classifiers based on Transformer architectures that meets operational requirements: it is unsupervised and fast to compute. The efficiency of TRUSTED relies on the fruitful idea that all hidden layers carry relevant information to detect OOD examples. Based on this, for a given input, TRUSTED consists in (i) aggregating this information and (ii) computing a similarity score by exploiting the training distribution, leveraging the powerful concept of data depth. Our extensive numerical experiments involve 51k model configurations, including various checkpoints, seeds, and datasets, and demonstrate that TRUSTED achieves state-of-the-art performances. In particular, it improves previous AUROC over 3 points.
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
Automatic evaluation metrics capable of replacing human judgments are critical to allowing fast development of new methods. Thus, numerous research efforts have focused on crafting such metrics. In this work, we take a step back and analyze recent progress by comparing the body of existing automatic metrics and human metrics altogether. As metrics are used based on how they rank systems, we compare metrics in the space of system rankings. Our extensive statistical analysis reveals surprising findings: automatic metrics -- old and new -- are much more similar to each other than to humans. Automatic metrics are not complementary and rank systems similarly. Strikingly, human metrics predict each other much better than the combination of all automatic metrics used to predict a human metric. It is surprising because human metrics are often designed to be independent, to capture different aspects of quality, e.g. content fidelity or readability. We provide a discussion of these findings and recommendations for future work in the field of evaluation.