Text entry is an essential task in our day-to-day digital interactions. Numerous intelligent features have been developed to streamline this process, making text entry more effective, efficient, and fluid. These improvements include sentence prediction and user personalization. However, as deep learning-based language models become the norm for these advanced features, the necessity for data collection and model fine-tuning increases. These challenges can be mitigated by harnessing the in-context learning capability of large language models such as GPT-3.5. This unique feature allows the language model to acquire new skills through prompts, eliminating the need for data collection and fine-tuning. Consequently, large language models can learn various text prediction techniques. We initially showed that, for a sentence prediction task, merely prompting GPT-3.5 surpassed a GPT-2 backed system and is comparable with a fine-tuned GPT-3.5 model, with the latter two methods requiring costly data collection, fine-tuning and post-processing. However, the task of prompting large language models to specialize in specific text prediction tasks can be challenging, particularly for designers without expertise in prompt engineering. To address this, we introduce Promptor, a conversational prompt generation agent designed to engage proactively with designers. Promptor can automatically generate complex prompts tailored to meet specific needs, thus offering a solution to this challenge. We conducted a user study involving 24 participants creating prompts for three intelligent text entry tasks, half of the participants used Promptor while the other half designed prompts themselves. The results show that Promptor-designed prompts result in a 35% increase in similarity and 22% in coherence over those by designers.
We depend on our own memory to encode, store, and retrieve our experiences. However, memory lapses can occur. One promising avenue for achieving memory augmentation is through the use of augmented reality head-mounted displays to capture and preserve egocentric videos, a practice commonly referred to as life logging. However, a significant challenge arises from the sheer volume of video data generated through life logging, as the current technology lacks the capability to encode and store such large amounts of data efficiently. Further, retrieving specific information from extensive video archives requires substantial computational power, further complicating the task of quickly accessing desired content. To address these challenges, we propose a memory augmentation system that involves leveraging natural language encoding for video data and storing them in a vector database. This approach harnesses the power of large vision language models to perform the language encoding process. Additionally, we propose using large language models to facilitate natural language querying. Our system underwent extensive evaluation using the QA-Ego4D dataset and achieved state-of-the-art results with a BLEU score of 8.3, outperforming conventional machine learning models that scored between 3.4 and 5.8. Additionally, in a user study, our system received a higher mean response score of 4.13/5 compared to the human participants' score of 2.46/5 on real-life episodic memory tasks.
Designers reportedly struggle with design optimization tasks where they are asked to find a combination of design parameters that maximizes a given set of objectives. In HCI, design optimization problems are often exceedingly complex, involving multiple objectives and expensive empirical evaluations. Model-based computational design algorithms assist designers by generating design examples during design, however they assume a model of the interaction domain. Black box methods for assistance, on the other hand, can work with any design problem. However, virtually all empirical studies of this human-in-the-loop approach have been carried out by either researchers or end-users. The question stands out if such methods can help designers in realistic tasks. In this paper, we study Bayesian optimization as an algorithmic method to guide the design optimization process. It operates by proposing to a designer which design candidate to try next, given previous observations. We report observations from a comparative study with 40 novice designers who were tasked to optimize a complex 3D touch interaction technique. The optimizer helped designers explore larger proportions of the design space and arrive at a better solution, however they reported lower agency and expressiveness. Designers guided by an optimizer reported lower mental effort but also felt less creative and less in charge of the progress. We conclude that human-in-the-loop optimization can support novice designers in cases where agency is not critical.
Deep learning approaches deliver state-of-the-art performance in recognition of spatiotemporal human motion data. However, one of the main challenges in these recognition tasks is limited available training data. Insufficient training data results in over-fitting and data augmentation is one approach to address this challenge. Existing data augmentation strategies, such as transformations including scaling, shifting and interpolating, require hyperparameter optimization that can easily cost hundreds of GPU hours. In this paper, we present a novel automatic data augmentation model, the Imaginative Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) that approximates the distribution of the input data and samples new data from this distribution. It is automatic in that it requires no data inspection and little hyperparameter tuning and therefore it is a low-cost and low-effort approach to generate synthetic data. The proposed data augmentation strategy is fast to train and the synthetic data leads to higher recognition accuracy than using data augmented with a classical approach.
This paper presents the statistical model for Ticker , a novel probabilistic stereophonic single-switch text entry method for visually-impaired users with motor disabilities who rely on single-switch scanning systems to communicate. All terminology and notation are defined in .
Despite the ubiquity of mobile and wearable text messaging applications, the problem of keyboard text decoding is not tackled sufficiently in the light of the enormous success of the deep learning Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for natural language understanding. In particular, considering that the keyboard decoders should operate on devices with memory and processor resource constraints, makes it challenging to deploy industrial scale deep neural network (DNN) models. This paper proposes a sequence-to-sequence neural attention network system for automatic text correction and completion. Given an erroneous sequence, our model encodes character level hidden representations and then decodes the revised sequence thus enabling auto-correction and completion. We achieve this by a combination of character level CNN and gated recurrent unit (GRU) encoder along with and a word level gated recurrent unit (GRU) attention decoder. Unlike traditional language models that learn from billions of words, our corpus size is only 12 million words; an order of magnitude smaller. The memory footprint of our learnt model for inference and prediction is also an order of magnitude smaller than the conventional language model based text decoders. We report baseline performance for neural keyboard decoders in such limited domain. Our models achieve a word level accuracy of $90\%$ and a character error rate CER of $2.4\%$ over the Twitter typo dataset. We present a novel dataset of noisy to corrected mappings by inducing the noise distribution from the Twitter data over the OpenSubtitles 2009 dataset; on which our model predicts with a word level accuracy of $98\%$ and sequence accuracy of $68.9\%$. In our user study, our model achieved an average CER of $2.6\%$ with the state-of-the-art non-neural touch-screen keyboard decoder at CER of $1.6\%$.