Uncertainty quantification (UQ) plays a pivotal role in reduction of uncertainties during both optimization and decision making processes. It can be applied to solve a variety of real-world applications in science and engineering. Bayesian approximation and ensemble learning techniques are two most widely-used UQ methods in the literature. In this regard, researchers have proposed different UQ methods and examined their performance in a variety of applications such as computer vision (e.g., self-driving cars and object detection), image processing (e.g., image restoration), medical image analysis (e.g., medical image classification and segmentation), natural language processing (e.g., text classification, social media texts and recidivism risk-scoring), bioinformatics, etc.This study reviews recent advances in UQ methods used in deep learning. Moreover, we also investigate the application of these methods in reinforcement learning (RL). Then, we outline a few important applications of UQ methods. Finally, we briefly highlight the fundamental research challenges faced by UQ methods and discuss the future research directions in this field.
Understanding data and reaching valid conclusions are of paramount importance in the present era of big data. Machine learning and probability theory methods have widespread application for this purpose in different fields. One critically important yet less explored aspect is how data and model uncertainties are captured and analyzed. Proper quantification of uncertainty provides valuable information for optimal decision making. This paper reviewed related studies conducted in the last 30 years (from 1991 to 2020) in handling uncertainties in medical data using probability theory and machine learning techniques. Medical data is more prone to uncertainty due to the presence of noise in the data. So, it is very important to have clean medical data without any noise to get accurate diagnosis. The sources of noise in the medical data need to be known to address this issue. Based on the medical data obtained by the physician, diagnosis of disease, and treatment plan are prescribed. Hence, the uncertainty is growing in healthcare and there is limited knowledge to address these problems. We have little knowledge about the optimal treatment methods as there are many sources of uncertainty in medical science. Our findings indicate that there are few challenges to be addressed in handling the uncertainty in medical raw data and new models. In this work, we have summarized various methods employed to overcome this problem. Nowadays, application of novel deep learning techniques to deal such uncertainties have significantly increased.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved the state of the art performance in numerous fields. However, DNNs need high computation times, and people always expect better performance with lower computation. Therefore, we study the human somatosensory system and design a neural network (SpinalNet) to achieve higher accuracy with lower computation time. This paper aims to present the SpinalNet. Hidden layers of the proposed SpinalNet consist of three parts: 1) Input row, 2) Intermediate row, and 3) output row. The intermediate row of the SpinalNet usually contains a small number of neurons. Input segmentation enables each hidden layer to receive a part of the input and outputs of the previous layer. Therefore, the number of incoming weights in a hidden layer is significantly lower than traditional DNNs. As the network directly contributes to outputs in each layer, the vanishing gradient problem of DNN does not exist. We integrate the SpinalNet as the fully-connected layer of the convolutional neural network (CNN), residual neural network (ResNet), and Dense Convolutional Network (DenseNet), Visual Geometry Group (VGG) network. We observe a significant error reduction with lower computation in most situations. We have received state-of-the-art performance for the QMNIST, Kuzushiji-MNIST, and EMNIST(digits) datasets. Scripts of the proposed SpinalNet is available at the following link: https://github.com/dipuk0506/SpinalNet