Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be effectively treated when detected early, reducing mortality rates significantly. Traditionally, phonocardiogram (PCG) signals have been utilized for detecting cardiovascular disease due to their cost-effectiveness and simplicity. Nevertheless, various environmental and physiological noises frequently affect the PCG signals, compromising their essential distinctive characteristics. The prevalence of this issue in overcrowded and resource-constrained hospitals can compromise the accuracy of medical diagnoses. Therefore, this study aims to discover the optimal transformation method for detecting CVDs using noisy heart sound signals and propose a noise robust network to improve the CVDs classification performance.For the identification of the optimal transformation method for noisy heart sound data mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs), short-time Fourier transform (STFT), constant-Q nonstationary Gabor transform (CQT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) has been used with VGG16. Furthermore, we propose a novel convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN) architecture called noise robust cardio net (NRC-Net), which is a lightweight model to classify mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, and normal heart sounds using PCG signals contaminated with respiratory and random noises. An attention block is included to extract important temporal and spatial features from the noisy corrupted heart sound.The results of this study indicate that,CWT is the optimal transformation method for noisy heart sound signals. When evaluated on the GitHub heart sound dataset, CWT demonstrates an accuracy of 95.69% for VGG16, which is 1.95% better than the second-best CQT transformation technique. Moreover, our proposed NRC-Net with CWT obtained an accuracy of 97.4%, which is 1.71% higher than the VGG16.
Researchers have proposed several approaches for neural network (NN) based uncertainty quantification (UQ). However, most of the approaches are developed considering strong assumptions. Uncertainty quantification algorithms often perform poorly in an input domain and the reason for poor performance remains unknown. Therefore, we present a neural network training method that considers similar samples with sensitivity awareness in this paper. In the proposed NN training method for UQ, first, we train a shallow NN for the point prediction. Then, we compute the absolute differences between prediction and targets and train another NN for predicting those absolute differences or absolute errors. Domains with high average absolute errors represent a high uncertainty. In the next step, we select each sample in the training set one by one and compute both prediction and error sensitivities. Then we select similar samples with sensitivity consideration and save indexes of similar samples. The ranges of an input parameter become narrower when the output is highly sensitive to that parameter. After that, we construct initial uncertainty bounds (UB) by considering the distribution of sensitivity aware similar samples. Prediction intervals (PIs) from initial uncertainty bounds are larger and cover more samples than required. Therefore, we train bound correction NN. As following all the steps for finding UB for each sample requires a lot of computation and memory access, we train a UB computation NN. The UB computation NN takes an input sample and provides an uncertainty bound. The UB computation NN is the final product of the proposed approach. Scripts of the proposed method are available in the following GitHub repository: github.com/dipuk0506/UQ
Interpretation of electrocardiography (ECG) signals is required for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmia. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied for automated computer-aided diagnosis. Machine learning tasks can be divided into regression and classification. Regression can be used for noise and artifacts removal as well as resolve issues of missing data from low sampling frequency. Classification task concerns the prediction of output diagnostic classes according to expert-labeled input classes. In this work, we propose a deep neural network model capable of solving regression and classification tasks. Moreover, we combined the two approaches, using unlabeled and labeled data, to train the model. We tested the model on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. Our method showed high effectiveness in detecting cardiac arrhythmia based on modified Lead II ECG records, as well as achieved high quality of ECG signal approximation. For the former, our method attained overall accuracy of 87:33% and balanced accuracy of 80:54%, on par with reference approaches. For the latter, application of self-supervised learning allowed for training without the need for expert labels. The regression model yielded satisfactory performance with fairly accurate prediction of QRS complexes. Transferring knowledge from regression to the classification task, our method attained higher overall accuracy of 87:78%.
Recent advances in remote patient monitoring (RPM) systems can recognize various human activities to measure vital signs, including subtle motions from superficial vessels. There is a growing interest in applying artificial intelligence (AI) to this area of healthcare by addressing known limitations and challenges such as predicting and classifying vital signs and physical movements, which are considered crucial tasks. Federated learning is a relatively new AI technique designed to enhance data privacy by decentralizing traditional machine learning modeling. However, traditional federated learning requires identical architectural models to be trained across the local clients and global servers. This limits global model architecture due to the lack of local models heterogeneity. To overcome this, a novel federated learning architecture, FedStack, which supports ensembling heterogeneous architectural client models was proposed in this study. This work offers a protected privacy system for hospitalized in-patients in a decentralized approach and identifies optimum sensor placement. The proposed architecture was applied to a mobile health sensor benchmark dataset from 10 different subjects to classify 12 routine activities. Three AI models, ANN, CNN, and Bi-LSTM were trained on individual subject data. The federated learning architecture was applied to these models to build local and global models capable of state of the art performances. The local CNN model outperformed ANN and Bi-LSTM models on each subject data. Our proposed work has demonstrated better performance for heterogeneous stacking of the local models compared to homogeneous stacking. This work sets the stage to build an enhanced RPM system that incorporates client privacy to assist with clinical observations for patients in an acute mental health facility and ultimately help to prevent unexpected death.
With the advent of smart devices, the demand for various computational paradigms such as the Internet of Things, fog, and cloud computing has increased. However, effective resource allocation remains challenging in these paradigms. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) for resource allocation optimization in computational paradigms. To the best of our knowledge, there are no existing reviews on AI-based resource allocation approaches in different computational paradigms. The reviewed ML-based approaches are categorized as supervised and reinforcement learning (RL). Moreover, DL-based approaches and their combination with RL are surveyed. The review ends with a discussion on open research directions and a conclusion.
Breast histology image classification is a crucial step in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In breast pathological diagnosis, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have demonstrated great success using digitized histology slides. However, tissue classification is still challenging due to the high visual variability of the large-sized digitized samples and the lack of contextual information. In this paper, we propose a novel CNN, called Multi-level Context and Uncertainty aware (MCUa) dynamic deep learning ensemble model.MCUamodel consists of several multi-level context-aware models to learn the spatial dependency between image patches in a layer-wise fashion. It exploits the high sensitivity to the multi-level contextual information using an uncertainty quantification component to accomplish a novel dynamic ensemble model.MCUamodelhas achieved a high accuracy of 98.11% on a breast cancer histology image dataset. Experimental results show the superior effectiveness of the proposed solution compared to the state-of-the-art histology classification models.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) is currently the most common contagious disease which is prevalent all over the world. The main challenge of this disease is the primary diagnosis to prevent secondary infections and its spread from one person to another. Therefore, it is essential to use an automatic diagnosis system along with clinical procedures for the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 to prevent its spread. Artificial intelligence techniques using computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs and chest radiography have the potential to obtain high diagnostic performance for Covid-19 diagnosis. In this study, a fusion of convolutional neural network (CNN), support vector machine (SVM), and Sobel filter is proposed to detect COVID-19 using X-ray images. A new X-ray image dataset was collected and subjected to high pass filter using a Sobel filter to obtain the edges of the images. Then these images are fed to CNN deep learning model followed by SVM classifier with ten-fold cross validation strategy. This method is designed so that it can learn with not many data. Our results show that the proposed CNN-SVM with Sobel filtering (CNN-SVM+Sobel) achieved the highest classification accuracy of 99.02% in accurate detection of COVID-19. It showed that using Sobel filter can improve the performance of CNN. Unlike most of the other researches, this method does not use a pre-trained network. We have also validated our developed model using six public databases and obtained the highest performance. Hence, our developed model is ready for clinical application
The new coronavirus has caused more than 1 million deaths and continues to spread rapidly. This virus targets the lungs, causing respiratory distress which can be mild or severe. The X-ray or computed tomography (CT) images of lungs can reveal whether the patient is infected with COVID-19 or not. Many researchers are trying to improve COVID-19 detection using artificial intelligence. In this paper, relying on Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN), we propose a Semi-supervised Classification using Limited Labelled Data (SCLLD) for automated COVID-19 detection. Our motivation is to develop learning method which can cope with scenarios that preparing labelled data is time consuming or expensive. We further improved the detection accuracy of the proposed method by applying Sobel edge detection. The GAN discriminator output is a probability value which is used for classification in this work. The proposed system is trained using 10,000 CT scans collected from Omid hospital. Also, we validate our system using the public dataset. The proposed method is compared with other state of the art supervised methods such as Gaussian processes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a COVID-19 semi-supervised detection method is presented. Our method is capable of learning from a mixture of limited labelled and unlabelled data where supervised learners fail due to lack of sufficient amount of labelled data. Our semi-supervised training method significantly outperforms the supervised training of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in case labelled training data is scarce. Our method has achieved an accuracy of 99.60%, sensitivity of 99.39%, and specificity of 99.80% where CNN (trained supervised) has achieved an accuracy of 69.87%, sensitivity of 94%, and specificity of 46.40%.
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) plays a pivotal role in reduction of uncertainties during both optimization and decision making processes. It can be applied to solve a variety of real-world applications in science and engineering. Bayesian approximation and ensemble learning techniques are two most widely-used UQ methods in the literature. In this regard, researchers have proposed different UQ methods and examined their performance in a variety of applications such as computer vision (e.g., self-driving cars and object detection), image processing (e.g., image restoration), medical image analysis (e.g., medical image classification and segmentation), natural language processing (e.g., text classification, social media texts and recidivism risk-scoring), bioinformatics, etc. This study reviews recent advances in UQ methods used in deep learning. Moreover, we also investigate the application of these methods in reinforcement learning (RL). Then, we outline a few important applications of UQ methods. Finally, we briefly highlight the fundamental research challenges faced by UQ methods and discuss the future research directions in this field.