Federated learning (FL) is a classic paradigm of 6G edge intelligence (EI), which alleviates privacy leaks and high communication pressure caused by traditional centralized data processing in the artificial intelligence of things (AIoT). The implementation of multimodal federated perception (MFP) services involves three sub-processes, including sensing-based multimodal data generation, communication-based model transmission, and computing-based model training, ultimately relying on available underlying multi-domain physical resources such as time, frequency, and computing power. How to reasonably coordinate the multi-domain resources scheduling among sensing, communication, and computing, therefore, is crucial to the MFP networks. To address the above issues, this paper investigates service-oriented resource management with integrated sensing, communication, and computing (ISCC). With the incentive mechanism of the MFP service market, the resources management problem is redefined as a social welfare maximization problem, where the idea of "expanding resources" and "reducing costs" is used to improve learning performance gain and reduce resource costs. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed resource scheduling mechanisms.
Generative Artificial Intelligence (GAI) possesses the capabilities of generating realistic data and facilitating advanced decision-making. By integrating GAI into modern Internet of Things (IoT), Generative Internet of Things (GIoT) is emerging and holds immense potential to revolutionize various aspects of society, enabling more efficient and intelligent IoT applications, such as smart surveillance and voice assistants. In this article, we present the concept of GIoT and conduct an exploration of its potential prospects. Specifically, we first overview four GAI techniques and investigate promising GIoT applications. Then, we elaborate on the main challenges in enabling GIoT and propose a general GAI-based secure incentive mechanism framework to address them, in which we adopt Generative Diffusion Models (GDMs) for incentive mechanism designs and apply blockchain technologies for secure GIoT management. Moreover, we conduct a case study on modern Internet of Vehicle traffic monitoring, which utilizes GDMs to generate effective contracts for incentivizing users to contribute sensing data with high quality. Finally, we suggest several open directions worth investigating for the future popularity of GIoT.
In recent years, ubiquitous semantic Metaverse has been studied to revolutionize immersive cyber-virtual experiences for augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) users, which leverages advanced semantic understanding and representation to enable seamless, context-aware interactions within mixed-reality environments. This survey focuses on the intelligence and spatio-temporal characteristics of four fundamental system components in ubiquitous semantic Metaverse, i.e., artificial intelligence (AI), spatio-temporal data representation (STDR), semantic Internet of Things (SIoT), and semantic-enhanced digital twin (SDT). We thoroughly survey the representative techniques of the four fundamental system components that enable intelligent, personalized, and context-aware interactions with typical use cases of the ubiquitous semantic Metaverse, such as remote education, work and collaboration, entertainment and socialization, healthcare, and e-commerce marketing. Furthermore, we outline the opportunities for constructing the future ubiquitous semantic Metaverse, including scalability and interoperability, privacy and security, performance measurement and standardization, as well as ethical considerations and responsible AI. Addressing those challenges is important for creating a robust, secure, and ethically sound system environment that offers engaging immersive experiences for the users and AR/VR applications.
Imagine stepping into a virtual world that's as rich, dynamic, and interactive as our physical one. This is the promise of the Metaverse, and it's being brought to life by the transformative power of Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI). This paper offers a comprehensive exploration of how generative AI technologies are shaping the Metaverse, transforming it into a dynamic, immersive, and interactive virtual world. We delve into the applications of text generation models like ChatGPT and GPT-3, which are enhancing conversational interfaces with AI-generated characters. We explore the role of image generation models such as DALL-E and MidJourney in creating visually stunning and diverse content. We also examine the potential of 3D model generation technologies like Point-E and Lumirithmic in creating realistic virtual objects that enrich the Metaverse experience. But the journey doesn't stop there. We also address the challenges and ethical considerations of implementing these technologies in the Metaverse, offering insights into the balance between user control and AI automation. This paper is not just a study, but a guide to the future of the Metaverse, offering readers a roadmap to harnessing the power of generative AI in creating immersive virtual worlds.
Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) and extremely large-scale MIMO (XL-MIMO) are regarded as promising innovations for the forthcoming generation of wireless communication systems. Their significant advantages in augmenting the number of degrees of freedom have garnered considerable interest. In this article, we first review the essential opportunities and challenges induced by XL-MIMO systems. We then propose the enhanced paradigm of cell-free XL-MIMO, which incorporates multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) to provide a distributed strategy for tackling the problem of high-dimension signal processing and costly energy consumption. Based on the unique near-field characteristics, we propose two categories of the low-complexity design, i.e., antenna selection and power control, to adapt to different cell-free XL-MIMO scenarios and achieve the maximum data rate. For inspiration, several critical future research directions pertaining to green cell-free XL-MIMO systems are presented.
This article outlines the architecture of autonomous driving and related complementary frameworks from the perspective of human comfort. The technical elements for measuring Autonomous Vehicle (AV) user comfort and psychoanalysis are listed here. At the same time, this article introduces the technology related to the structure of automatic driving and the reaction time of automatic driving. We also discuss the technical details related to the automatic driving comfort system, the response time of the AV driver, the comfort level of the AV, motion sickness, and related optimization technologies. The function of the sensor is affected by various factors. Since the sensor of automatic driving mainly senses the environment around a vehicle, including "the weather" which introduces the challenges and limitations of second-hand sensors in autonomous vehicles under different weather conditions. The comfort and safety of autonomous driving are also factors that affect the development of autonomous driving technologies. This article further analyzes the impact of autonomous driving on the user's physical and psychological states and how the comfort factors of autonomous vehicles affect the automotive market. Also, part of our focus is on the benefits and shortcomings of autonomous driving. The goal is to present an exhaustive overview of the most relevant technical matters to help researchers and application developers comprehend the different comfort factors and systems of autonomous driving. Finally, we provide detailed automated driving comfort use cases to illustrate the comfort-related issues of autonomous driving. Then, we provide implications and insights for the future of autonomous driving.
Remote monitoring systems analyze the environment dynamics in different smart industrial applications, such as occupational health and safety, and environmental monitoring. Specifically, in industrial Internet of Things (IoT) systems, the huge number of devices and the expected performance put pressure on resources, such as computational, network, and device energy. Distributed training of Machine and Deep Learning (ML/DL) models for intelligent industrial IoT applications is very challenging for resource limited devices over heterogeneous wireless networks (HetNets). Hierarchical Federated Learning (HFL) performs training at multiple layers offloading the tasks to nearby Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) units. In this paper, we propose a novel energy-efficient HFL framework enabled by Wireless Energy Transfer (WET) and designed for heterogeneous networks with massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless backhaul. Our energy-efficiency approach is formulated as a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) problem, where we optimize the HFL device association and manage the wireless transmitted energy. However due to its high complexity, we design a Heuristic Resource Management Algorithm, namely H2RMA, that respects energy, channel quality, and accuracy constraints, while presenting a low computational complexity. We also improve the energy consumption of the network using an efficient device scheduling scheme. Finally, we investigate device mobility and its impact on the HFL performance. Our extensive experiments confirm the high performance of the proposed resource management approach in HFL over HetNets, in terms of training loss and grid energy costs.
UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) is gradually entering various human activities. It has also become an important part of satellite-air-ground-sea integrated network (SAGS) for 6G communication. In order to achieve high mobility, UAV has strict requirements on communication latency, and it cannot be illegally controlled as weapons of attack with malicious intentions. Therefore, an efficient and secure communication method specifically designed for UAV network is required. This paper proposes a communication mechanism named ESCM for the above requirements. For high efficiency of communication, ESCM designs a routing protocol based on artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for UAV network to accelerate communication between UAVs. Meanwhile, we plan to use blockchain to guarantee the communication security of UAV networks. However, blockchain has unstable links in high mobility network scenarios, resulting in low consensus efficiency and high communication overhead. Therefore, ESCM also introduces the concept of the digital twin, mapping the UAVs from the physical world into Cyberspace, transforming the UAV network into a static network. And this virtual UAV network is called CyberUAV. Then, in CyberUAV, we design a blockchain system and propose a consensus algorithm based on network coding, named proof of network coding (PoNC). PoNC not only ensures the security of ESCM, but also further improves the performance of ESCM through network coding. Simulation results show that ESCM has obvious advantages in communication efficiency and security. Moreover, encoding messages through PoNC consensus can increase the network throughput, and make mobile blockchain static through digital twin can improve the consensus success rate.
The Metaverse offers a second world beyond reality, where boundaries are non-existent, and possibilities are endless through engagement and immersive experiences using the virtual reality (VR) technology. Many disciplines can benefit from the advancement of the Metaverse when accurately developed, including the fields of technology, gaming, education, art, and culture. Nevertheless, developing the Metaverse environment to its full potential is an ambiguous task that needs proper guidance and directions. Existing surveys on the Metaverse focus only on a specific aspect and discipline of the Metaverse and lack a holistic view of the entire process. To this end, a more holistic, multi-disciplinary, in-depth, and academic and industry-oriented review is required to provide a thorough study of the Metaverse development pipeline. To address these issues, we present in this survey a novel multi-layered pipeline ecosystem composed of (1) the Metaverse computing, networking, communications and hardware infrastructure, (2) environment digitization, and (3) user interactions. For every layer, we discuss the components that detail the steps of its development. Also, for each of these components, we examine the impact of a set of enabling technologies and empowering domains (e.g., Artificial Intelligence, Security & Privacy, Blockchain, Business, Ethics, and Social) on its advancement. In addition, we explain the importance of these technologies to support decentralization, interoperability, user experiences, interactions, and monetization. Our presented study highlights the existing challenges for each component, followed by research directions and potential solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the most comprehensive and allows users, scholars, and entrepreneurs to get an in-depth understanding of the Metaverse ecosystem to find their opportunities and potentials for contribution.