Machine learning (ML) models are becoming integral in healthcare technologies, presenting a critical need for formal assurance to validate their safety, fairness, robustness, and trustworthiness. These models are inherently prone to errors, potentially posing serious risks to patient health and could even cause irreparable harm. Traditional software assurance techniques rely on fixed code and do not directly apply to ML models since these algorithms are adaptable and learn from curated datasets through a training process. However, adapting established principles, such as boundary testing using synthetic test data can effectively bridge this gap. To this end, we present a novel technique called Mix-Up Boundary Analysis (MUBA) that facilitates evaluating image classifiers in terms of prediction fairness. We evaluated MUBA for two important medical imaging tasks -- brain tumour classification and breast cancer classification -- and achieved promising results. This research aims to showcase the importance of adapting traditional assurance principles for assessing ML models to enhance the safety and reliability of healthcare technologies. To facilitate future research, we plan to publicly release our code for MUBA.
Coronary angiography analysis is a common clinical task performed by cardiologists to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) through an assessment of atherosclerotic plaque's accumulation. This study introduces an end-to-end machine learning solution developed as part of our solution for the MICCAI 2023 Automatic Region-based Coronary Artery Disease diagnostics using x-ray angiography imagEs (ARCADE) challenge, which aims to benchmark solutions for multivessel coronary artery segmentation and potential stenotic lesion localisation from X-ray coronary angiograms. We adopted a robust baseline model training strategy to progressively improve performance, comprising five successive stages of binary class pretraining, multivessel segmentation, fine-tuning using class frequency weighted dataloaders, fine-tuning using F1-based curriculum learning strategy (F1-CLS), and finally multi-target angiogram view classifier-based collective adaptation. Unlike many other medical imaging procedures, this task exhibits a notable degree of interobserver variability. %, making it particularly amenable to automated analysis. Our ensemble model combines the outputs from six baseline models using the weighted ensembling approach, which our analysis shows is found to double the predictive accuracy of the proposed solution. The final prediction was further refined, targeting the correction of misclassified blobs. Our solution achieved a mean F1 score of $37.69\%$ for coronary artery segmentation, and $39.41\%$ for stenosis localisation, positioning our team in the 5th position on both leaderboards. This work demonstrates the potential of automated tools to aid CAD diagnosis, guide interventions, and improve the accuracy of stent injections in clinical settings.
Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been the driving force behind many of the recent advances in machine learning. However, research has shown that DNNs are vulnerable to adversarial examples -- input samples that have been perturbed to force DNN-based models to make errors. As a result, Adversarial Machine Learning (AdvML) has gained a lot of attention, and researchers have investigated these vulnerabilities in various settings and modalities. In addition, DNNs have also been found to incorporate embedded bias and often produce unexplainable predictions, which can result in anti-social AI applications. The emergence of new AI technologies that leverage Large Language Models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT and GPT-4, increases the risk of producing anti-social applications at scale. AdvML for Social Good (AdvML4G) is an emerging field that repurposes the AdvML bug to invent pro-social applications. Regulators, practitioners, and researchers should collaborate to encourage the development of pro-social applications and hinder the development of anti-social ones. In this work, we provide the first comprehensive review of the emerging field of AdvML4G. This paper encompasses a taxonomy that highlights the emergence of AdvML4G, a discussion of the differences and similarities between AdvML4G and AdvML, a taxonomy covering social good-related concepts and aspects, an exploration of the motivations behind the emergence of AdvML4G at the intersection of ML4G and AdvML, and an extensive summary of the works that utilize AdvML4G as an auxiliary tool for innovating pro-social applications. Finally, we elaborate upon various challenges and open research issues that require significant attention from the research community.
Semantic understanding of roadways is a key enabling factor for safe autonomous driving. However, existing autonomous driving datasets provide well-structured urban roads while ignoring unstructured roadways containing distress, potholes, water puddles, and various kinds of road patches i.e., earthen, gravel etc. To this end, we introduce Road Region Segmentation dataset (R2S100K) -- a large-scale dataset and benchmark for training and evaluation of road segmentation in aforementioned challenging unstructured roadways. R2S100K comprises 100K images extracted from a large and diverse set of video sequences covering more than 1000 KM of roadways. Out of these 100K privacy respecting images, 14,000 images have fine pixel-labeling of road regions, with 86,000 unlabeled images that can be leveraged through semi-supervised learning methods. Alongside, we present an Efficient Data Sampling (EDS) based self-training framework to improve learning by leveraging unlabeled data. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves learning methods in generalizability and reduces the labeling cost for semantic segmentation tasks. Our benchmark will be publicly available to facilitate future research at https://r2s100k.github.io/.
Despite the recent progress in speech emotion recognition (SER), state-of-the-art systems are unable to achieve improved performance in cross-language settings. In this paper, we propose a Multimodal Dual Attention Transformer (MDAT) model to improve cross-language SER. Our model utilises pre-trained models for multimodal feature extraction and is equipped with a dual attention mechanism including graph attention and co-attention to capture complex dependencies across different modalities and achieve improved cross-language SER results using minimal target language data. In addition, our model also exploits a transformer encoder layer for high-level feature representation to improve emotion classification accuracy. In this way, MDAT performs refinement of feature representation at various stages and provides emotional salient features to the classification layer. This novel approach also ensures the preservation of modality-specific emotional information while enhancing cross-modality and cross-language interactions. We assess our model's performance on four publicly available SER datasets and establish its superior effectiveness compared to recent approaches and baseline models.
Several membership inference (MI) attacks have been proposed to audit a target DNN. Given a set of subjects, MI attacks tell which subjects the target DNN has seen during training. This work focuses on the post-training MI attacks emphasizing high confidence membership detection -- True Positive Rates (TPR) at low False Positive Rates (FPR). Current works in this category -- likelihood ratio attack (LiRA) and enhanced MI attack (EMIA) -- only perform well on complex datasets (e.g., CIFAR-10 and Imagenet) where the target DNN overfits its train set, but perform poorly on simpler datasets (0% TPR by both attacks on Fashion-MNIST, 2% and 0% TPR respectively by LiRA and EMIA on MNIST at 1% FPR). To address this, firstly, we unify current MI attacks by presenting a framework divided into three stages -- preparation, indication and decision. Secondly, we utilize the framework to propose two novel attacks: (1) Adversarial Membership Inference Attack (AMIA) efficiently utilizes the membership and the non-membership information of the subjects while adversarially minimizing a novel loss function, achieving 6% TPR on both Fashion-MNIST and MNIST datasets; and (2) Enhanced AMIA (E-AMIA) combines EMIA and AMIA to achieve 8% and 4% TPRs on Fashion-MNIST and MNIST datasets respectively, at 1% FPR. Thirdly, we introduce two novel augmented indicators that positively leverage the loss information in the Gaussian neighborhood of a subject. This improves TPR of all four attacks on average by 2.5% and 0.25% respectively on Fashion-MNIST and MNIST datasets at 1% FPR. Finally, we propose simple, yet novel, evaluation metric, the running TPR average (RTA) at a given FPR, that better distinguishes different MI attacks in the low FPR region. We also show that AMIA and E-AMIA are more transferable to the unknown DNNs (other than the target DNN) and are more robust to DP-SGD training as compared to LiRA and EMIA.
Over the past few years, surgical data science has attracted substantial interest from the machine learning (ML) community. Various studies have demonstrated the efficacy of emerging ML techniques in analysing surgical data, particularly recordings of procedures, for digitizing clinical and non-clinical functions like preoperative planning, context-aware decision-making, and operating skill assessment. However, this field is still in its infancy and lacks representative, well-annotated datasets for training robust models in intermediate ML tasks. Also, existing datasets suffer from inaccurate labels, hindering the development of reliable models. In this paper, we propose a systematic methodology for developing robust models for surgical tool detection using noisy data. Our methodology introduces two key innovations: (1) an intelligent active learning strategy for minimal dataset identification and label correction by human experts; and (2) an assembling strategy for a student-teacher model-based self-training framework to achieve the robust classification of 14 surgical tools in a semi-supervised fashion. Furthermore, we employ weighted data loaders to handle difficult class labels and address class imbalance issues. The proposed methodology achieves an average F1-score of 85.88\% for the ensemble model-based self-training with class weights, and 80.88\% without class weights for noisy labels. Also, our proposed method significantly outperforms existing approaches, which effectively demonstrates its effectiveness.
This article outlines the architecture of autonomous driving and related complementary frameworks from the perspective of human comfort. The technical elements for measuring Autonomous Vehicle (AV) user comfort and psychoanalysis are listed here. At the same time, this article introduces the technology related to the structure of automatic driving and the reaction time of automatic driving. We also discuss the technical details related to the automatic driving comfort system, the response time of the AV driver, the comfort level of the AV, motion sickness, and related optimization technologies. The function of the sensor is affected by various factors. Since the sensor of automatic driving mainly senses the environment around a vehicle, including "the weather" which introduces the challenges and limitations of second-hand sensors in autonomous vehicles under different weather conditions. The comfort and safety of autonomous driving are also factors that affect the development of autonomous driving technologies. This article further analyzes the impact of autonomous driving on the user's physical and psychological states and how the comfort factors of autonomous vehicles affect the automotive market. Also, part of our focus is on the benefits and shortcomings of autonomous driving. The goal is to present an exhaustive overview of the most relevant technical matters to help researchers and application developers comprehend the different comfort factors and systems of autonomous driving. Finally, we provide detailed automated driving comfort use cases to illustrate the comfort-related issues of autonomous driving. Then, we provide implications and insights for the future of autonomous driving.
Non-speech emotion recognition has a wide range of applications including healthcare, crime control and rescue, and entertainment, to name a few. Providing these applications using edge computing has great potential, however, recent studies are focused on speech-emotion recognition using complex architectures. In this paper, a non-speech-based emotion recognition system is proposed, which can rely on edge computing to analyse emotions conveyed through non-speech expressions like screaming and crying. In particular, we explore knowledge distillation to design a computationally efficient system that can be deployed on edge devices with limited resources without degrading the performance significantly. We comprehensively evaluate our proposed framework using two publicly available datasets and highlight its effectiveness by comparing the results with the well-known MobileNet model. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using edge computing for non-speech emotion detection, which can potentially improve applications that rely on emotion detection in communication networks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on an edge-computing-based framework for detecting emotions in non-speech audio, offering promising directions for future research.